Dove Brand Analysis

International round-up: Coca-Cola’s new corporate campaign, Uber sues mobile agency

by Marketing Week Reporters @ Marketing Week

Coca-Cola looks to make its corporate brand about more than just Coke Coca-Cola has launched a new corporate branding campaign in the US that aims to portray it as a “total beverage company” and shift the focus away from its most famous product. The spots, which are airing on US TV, feature a wide range […]

The post International round-up: Coca-Cola’s new corporate campaign, Uber sues mobile agency appeared first on Marketing Week.

Commentaires sur The most desired US brands by women … and men par Etude : les femmes et la technologie « Les News du planning

by Etude : les femmes et la technologie « Les News du planning @ Commentaires pour Womenology

[...] La plupart des marques des secteurs concernés n’ont pas perçu ce potentiel de consommation et ont délaissés les femmes dans leurs stratégies. À l’inverse, ceux qui comme Sony ont eu du flair se sont vus récompenser : avec des actions comme « Sony loves Women ! » ou la commercialisation d’une PSP Pink (première console portable conçue pour les femmes), le groupe nippon a réussi à devenir la 2e marque préférée des consommatrices américaines. [...]


by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

Category: Electronics & technology – software; Professional services – technological solutions Owner of the brand: SAP SE Key competitors: IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, Salesforce, Sage

Artykuł SAP pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

British Airways

by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

Category: Travel & transportation – airlines Owner of the brand: International Airline Group, S.A. Key competitors: Lufthansa, KLM, Air France, Virgin, Emirates Airline, Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, United Airlines

Artykuł British Airways pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

Procter & Gamble

by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

Category: FMCG Household products; FMCG Personal care & beauty Owner of the brand: Procter & Gamble Co. Key competitors: Unilever, Colgate-Palmolive, Reckitt Benckiser Group

Artykuł Procter & Gamble pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Adolescent

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics


Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Adolescent



Final Paper















            This paper discusses the details importantly to take note of regarding the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent or MMPI-A. This describes the historical background of the test in order to provide useful background or support of the discussion. It also includes the general description of the test, which would be highly useful in the progression of the discussion. Psychometric qualities of the test were also provided, which includes the standardization, validity, and reliability of the test. Its varied uses were also given importance, such as its use in the clinical or medical, legal or forensic, and psychological uses. A critique of the test was done through determining and analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the test, by stating its psychometric qualities, and by discussing the relevant ethical and legal issues involved in its use. Part of the paper is to specify its use in the practical setting, which indicates its purposes, benefits, challenges, and use of the results of the test. At the end of the paper, a conclusion was done, which places emphasis on the summary of what was discussed in the paper and the personal thoughts of the author.  







Table of Contents


Title Page                                                                                                                    1

Abstract                                                                                                                      2

Table of Contents                                                                                                       3

Introduction                                                                                                                4

Description of the Test and Its History                                                                      4

Psychometric Qualities of the Test                                                                             6

Uses of the Test                                                                                                          8

Critique of the Test                                                                                                     10

Description of the Use of the Test in Own Setting                                                    13

Conclusion                                                                                                                  14

References                                                                                                                  16





            The drastic changes happening in the society today significantly affect the welfare, personality, perceptions, and even the future of adolescents, thus, affecting the future of the entire society as well. Such changes lead to more serious problems that result to emotional, physical, and psychological damages in individuals that consequently yield to other social problems, such as increased rates and cases of juvenile delinquency, crimes involving adolescents, abortion, single-parenthood, and diseases caused by sexual aggression, such as AIDS and sexually-transmitted illnesses. With these problems at hand, the field of psychology would be able to help the society, particularly the adolescents in terms of introducing psychological tests, which would assist adolescents in measuring their personality, such as the MMPI-A or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The different details about the test, including its qualities and uses are discussed in the paper, including its critique and application. At the end of the paper, a conclusion is provided in order to highlight the important points discussed in the paper.


Description of the Test and Its History (Important Evolutionary Milestone)

            It has been reported by Archer (2005) that the work on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or the MMPI was begun by Stark R. Hathaway, a psychologist, and J.C. McKinley, a neuropsychologist, in 1937. The authors of the test were motivated to come up a “personality inventory” based primarily on noticing that a large proportion of clients for medical treatment manifested psychoneurotic complaints. As such, Hathaway and McKinley sought to develop an instrument that would be useful in determining and describing clients in a manner that was more effective and appropriate than using psychiatric interview techniques, which are traditionally used for psychological evaluations of medical clients. During the continuous development and administration of the test, its application is extended to adolescent populations for both clinical and research purposes. Although the administration of MMPI was intended for individuals who were 16 years of age and older, Dahlstrom et al (1972) noted that it can be also used effectively with “bright children as young as 12”, thus, the delineation of age 12 as its lower limit in terms of MMPI administration was probably related to the estimate that a sixth-grade reading level was a prerequisite for understanding the MMPI item pool (p. 24).

            The year 1941 marks the first research application of the MMPI with adolescents, which is two years before the formal application of MMPI in 1943. Dora Capwell, in 1945 indicated that the test has an ability to accurately discriminate between groups of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescent girls based on Pd scale elevation. The validity of the test was also proven by Hathaway and Monachesi, who collected the largest MMPI data set ever obtained on adolescents, in a longitudinal study of the relationship between MMPI findings and delinquent behaviors. In the end, the study done by Hathaway and Monachesi proved to be very valuable in a number of ways, namely, by (1) establishing that the MMPI can usefully predict at least one broad area of important behavior exhibited by adolescents, which is delinquency; (2) providing a body of crucial information concerning differences in item endorsement for male vs. female adolescents and for adolescents vs. adults; (3) providing a major component of the traditionally used adolescent norms, which is later developed by Marks and Briggs; and (4) providing an extraordinarily rich source of data for follow-up investigations of the original Hathaway and Monachesi subjects, across topics from the prediction of juvenile delinquency to the personality precursors of schizophrenia (Archer, 2005, pp. 30-32). Thus, with such findings, at present, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is now the most frequently used objective personality instrument employed with adolescents (Janus et al., 1998, p. 321). It is now the most frequently used self-report measure to determine adolescents who are in need of psychological intervention and used to identify such adolescents from those displaying the normal spectrum of emotional and behavioral liability (as cited in Hand et al., 2007, p. 80). With this, it is often employed in court cases in order to provide personality information on defendants or litigants in which psychological adjustment factors are relevant to the resolution of the case. Its administration is fairly easy, thus, providing an objective measure of personality. Being a well-researched and highly-reliable instrument, the test is often used in custody evaluations, as it provides clear and valid descriptions of the problems, symptoms, and characteristics of individuals in broadly accepted clinical language. In addition, the profiles are manageable to explain in court and appear to be relatively simple for people to comprehend (Karp and Karp, 2008).  


Psychometric Qualities of the Test (Standardization, Reliability and Validity)

            Standardization of the Test. It has been indicated that the MMPI was re-standardized in 1992 specifically for use with adolescents, in part to resolve normative confusion and to modify its original form for more appropriate use with adolescent respondents. The development of the MMPI-A involved the collection of normative data for 805 boys and 815 girls between the ages of 14 and 18, inclusive. Its final form included the original 13 basic validity and clinical scales with significant basic scale changes largely restricted to scales F, Mf, and Si. Although endorsement frequencies for the MMPI-A items were examined, comparisons between normative and clinical samples were not used as criteria in retaining or modifying the basic scales. It also included the development of 15 content scales, where eleven overlap with similar measures developed for MMPI-2, whereas 4 scales were uniquely developed for the MMPI-A (Archer et al., 2001, p. 421).  

            Reliability. Groth-Marnat (2003) reports that reliability studies indicate that MMPI-A had moderate levels of temporal stability and internal consistency, due to fluctuations in some scales. For example, Scale 2 (Depression) is particularly likely to be lowered after successful treatment; Scale 7 (Psychasthenia) would be likely to change according to an individual’s external situation. Thus, in this sense, test-retest reliability may actually be an inappropriate method of evaluating these scales for certain populations. In addition, this defense of the tests’ reliability is somewhat undermined by the observation that test-retest reliability is actually slightly more stable for psychiatric populations than for normals. Whereas the media range for psychiatric clients is about .80, media reliabilities for normals are about .70. Split-half reliabilities are likewise moderate, having an extremely wide range from .05 to .96 with median correlations in the .70s (as cited in Groth-Marnat, 2003, p. 221).

            Validity. It has been indicated that findings from studies of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A have mostly been consistent with studies done of the original MMPI. Investigations and studies have suggested that an incremental, though modest, contribution to the accuracy of clinical prediction when the MMPI is compared or combined with other sources of clinical information. Moreover, evidence for the convergent validity of the MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-A is generally recognized to be better than that for its discriminant validity. The method of contrasted groups, in which the item responses of a pathological criterion group are contrasted with those of a diverse group of psychiatrically healthy individuals, used for the development of the basic clinical scales has been the subject of criticism on both theoretical and psychometric grounds. Thus, in this regard, this method of scale construction increased sensitivity but allowed considerable item overlap, giving rise to enhanced correlations among the clinical scales and reduction of specificity and compromising discriminant validity. As a result, the test tends to perform better in discriminating between major psychiatric conditions than it does within them (American Psychiatric Assocation, 2000, p.91).


Uses of the Test

            Primarily, the basic use of MMPI-A is in clinical settings. One clinical application of its use has been emphasized in the study done to address concerns about the mixing of different developmental ages, use of inadequate comparison groups, and the lack of reliance on reliable and valid measures of psychological, behavioral, and psychosocial problems used in previous studies of sexually abused children and adolescents. Through the administration of the test, the study has found out that a number of significant differences between reportedly sexually abused and non-sexually abused on the MMPI-A scales are reported, and a significantly larger proportion of sexually abused participants were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder had numerous difficulties. Based on the tests, sexually abused adolescents had significantly higher elevations on scales that reflect thoughts of self-harm, depression, feelings of worthlessness, withdrawal from others and frequent running away. In addition, adolescents with such elevations tend to see their future as hopeless, feel that no one understands them, and consequently, respond minimally to treatment (Forbey et al., 2000, pp.9-10). Thus, clinicians must be able to take note of such factors in order to provide better diagnosis and treatment for such adolescents.

            Another use of the MMPI-A is for research purposes. It has been emphasized that the test manual for MMPI-A not only provides extensive data based on its normative sample but also provides psychometric data derived from a clinical sample of 420 boys and 293 girls between the ages of 14 and 18, inclusive. It also provided the mean MMPI-A profiles for 1,032 girls and 730 boys in psychiatric treatment who had completed the original MMPI, with the protocols rescored on MMPI-A norms. Through the test, a variety of studies have already been studied in relation to profile characteristics of adolescents in residential or inpatient psychiatric facilities, eating disorder programs, and in several inpatient and outpatient treatment programs for juvenile offenders (Forbey et al., 2000, p.3). Thus, in this regard, it can be understood that the test significantly provides additional information and knowledge regarding the different issue at hand.

            The next use of MMPI in adolescents is having knowledge regarding their personality and measuring their type of personality, which would be very helpful in assessing and understanding themselves. Once an adolescent or his/her parents or guardians are able to have adequate knowledge regarding their personality, then they would able to come up with strategies that would contribute to behavior modification, most especially when the behavior of the adolescent creates nuisance or havoc to the family, community or society. In relation to this are the forensic or legal uses of the MMPI-A. There are a variety of referral questions that the MMPI-A can be useful for answering, as the clinical constructs assessed by this instrument are often relevant to forensic issues or to individuals being treated in forensic settings. Some of the uses include competency to stand trial and insanity evaluations, personal injury and disability assessments, and assessment of general mental functioning for purposes of placement and treatment planning (Archer, 2006, p.70).


Critique of the Test (Strengths and Weaknesses, Psychometric Qualities and Issues)

            Strengths and Weaknesses. Primarily, its strength is its ability to provide a comprehensive clinical description for adolescents (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384). The test is helpful in assessing and evaluating the personality and associated behaviors of the adolescents, thus, making it easier to understand them. It also evaluates a wide range of symptoms and areas of functioning (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384), which can be used in clinical, psychological, and legal settings. In addition, clinicians using MMPI-A recognize the value of the updated normative sample, which is nationally representative, and includes minority populations (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384). In this sense, the sample does not exclude other representatives of the population, making the test more reliable and valid. The use of the test indicated ease of administration and psychometric soundness. This is because many of the newer scales, particularly the content scales have excellent internal consistency. Another major strength of the test is its ability to check for response biases and its ability to evaluate profile validity. This is because the test includes validity scales, which were also strengths of the MMPI, such as F, L, and K. In addition to such validity scales are the VRIN and TRIN scales, which show promise for determining inconsistent responding or a tendency for acquiescent or non-acquiescent responding. Lastly, the MMPI-A’s research base is supported by decades of MMPI investigations (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384), thus, making the descriptors and correlates of the test highly supported by studies and facts derived from researches.

            However, despite such strengths are a number of weaknesses of the MMPI-A, which include its foundation. This is because most of the basic clinical scales were retained with minimal modification, thus, several of such scales show low internal consistency, specifically when evaluated by today’s standards. In addition, many items are found on more than one scale, thus, contributing to higher correlations among scales. This can lead to uncertainty and confusion in the process of interpretation. Another weakness is that a significant number of items on both the basic and content scales do not demonstrate differential rates of endorsement between clinical and normative groups (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384).

            Psychometric Qualities. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory had a long history of use in the assessment of adolescents in various settings, including inpatient and outpatient psychiatric programs, substance abuse programs, and juvenile justice facilities. Similar to the parent and sister instruments of the MMPI-A, the individual scales of the MMPI-A often show appreciable intercorrelation. Factor analyses of the basic clinical and validity scales suggest that four factors account for the majority of the observed variance in scales scores. Furthermore, the large number of individual scales and subscales available on the MMPI-A serves to make the interpretation process quite complex for many clinicians, particularly given the varying degree of overlap between the scales (Archer et al., 2002, pp.1-2).

            Specific Ethical and Legal Issues. It has been indicated that psychologists using the MMPI-A must adhere to ethical guidelines governing both psychological assessment and professional practice with minors. The “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” notes that users of psychological assessment devices must have appropriate training and expertise. The manual of the MMPI-A indicates that competent use of the MMPI-A requires knowledge of psychopathology and diagnosis, adolescent development and personality, and psychometric principles and concepts, as well as mastery of the MMPI-A’s content and structure. Although technicians may administer and score the MMPI-A, they must be thoroughly trained and closely supervised by qualified psychologists. The ethics code of the American Psychological Association also requires discussion with adolescents and their parents or guardians of the limits of confidentiality, the purpose of the assessment, how assessment results will be used, and the extent to which feedback will be provided and to whom. These issues become especially complex in forensic settings, where assessment may be ordered by the court (Hersen, 2004, p.219). In relation to its use in forensics, ethical and legal issue involves evaluating adolescents in civil cases rests on its ability to provide an overview of the plaintiff’s psychological or emotional functioning in reference to well-established adolescent norms (Archer, 2006, p.70).


Description of the Use of the Test in Own Setting

            Purpose. In the hospital setting, the purpose of the MMPI-A is to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment to clients, particularly to the adolescents concerned with by the test. It also allows understanding of the issues and problems experienced or faced by the adolescents in the family, community, and society. Another objective or purpose of the use of MMPI-A is to provide relevant solutions for the problems of the adolescents, thus, helping them avoid or prevent severity of their psychological, emotional, and social problems.

            Benefits/Usefulness. One of the benefits of using the MMPI-A is to obtain more knowledge about the practice, thus, enabling medical practitioners to have develop more skills in the area. Another benefit is exposure to different cases, thus, having more references for future applications. The use of the test also provides more accurate and more relevant procedures for better diagnosis and treatment. Lastly, better medical practice can be developed through using the test.

            Challenges. The lack of cooperation and communication among the staff and the clients is one challenge. The lack of knowledge in the administration and the use of the results of the test are also considered. The lack of priority in using the test and the lack of recognition of its importance and implications are also challenges.

            How Results would be Used. Results would be used for additional researches. They can also be used for better treatment of the adolescents. The results can be used to provide better analysis of the problems of the adolescents in the community, thus, giving them useful and relevant options as solutions.



            Based on the discussion, it can be deduced that the use of MMPI-A is relevant and significant in the field of psychology, particularly in relation to clinical, legal, and psychological applications. The different details regarding the test were provided, including the major descriptions, validity, reliability, standardization, strengths and weaknesses, and its practical applications in the medical field. In addition, the historical background was specified in the beginning of the discussion in order to provide a background of the test. The different uses of the test were also identified, thus, emphasizing its practicality and applicability in different fields.

            In terms of its future applications, I believe that due to the rich sources and researches to support it, more and more applications can be thought of and proven in relation to the use of MMPI-A. In addition, the many uses and benefits of using the test serve to be the basis for its continued use in the clinical, legal, and psychological field. In the future, it can be perceived that more fields would be using the MMPI-A, such as education, sociology, politics, and economy. Furthermore, future applications of the test may also involve its further modification, which would help its users in terms of better application and results. Thus, it can be suggested that in addressing its limitations or weaknesses, the use of the test would be far more relevant and applicable in the present situation of the community and society, particularly in helping the society address the problems that concern the welfare of the adolescents.    



American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Task Force for the Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. Handbook of Psychiatric Measures, 1st ed. USA: American Psychiatric Association.

Archer, R.P. (2006). Forensic Uses of Clinical Assessment Instruments. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Archer, R.P. (2005). MMPI-A: Assessing Adolescent Psychopathology, 3rd ed. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Archer, R.P., Bolinskey, P.K, Morton, T.L. and Farris, K.L. (2002). A Factor Structure for the MMPI-A: Replication with Male Delinquents. Assessment, 9(4): 319-326.

Archer, R.P., Handel, R.W. and Lynch, K.D. (2001). The Effectiveness of MMPI-A Items in Discriminating Between Normative and Clinical Samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77(3): 420-435.

Forbey, J.D., Ben-Porath, Y.S. and Davis, D.L. (2000). A Comparison of Sexually Abused and Non-Sexually Abused Adolescents in a Clinical Treatment Facility using the MMPI-A. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(4), 557-568.

Groth-Marnat, G. (2003). Handbook of Psychological Assessment, 4th ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hand, C.G., Archer, R.P., Handel, R.W. and Forbey, J.D. (2007). The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample. Assessment, 14(1): 80-85

Hersen, M. (2004). Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Janus, M.D., de Groot, C. and Toepfer, S.M. (1998). The MMPI-A and 13-Year-Old Inpatients: How Young is Too Young?. Assessment, 5(4): 321-332.

Karp, C.L. and Karp, L. (2008). General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from

Reynolds, C.R. and Kamphaus, R.W. (2003). Handbook of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Children: Personality, Behavior, and Context, 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press.








by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

Category: Electronics & technology – cameras, office equipment, healthcare solutions Owner of the brand: Canon, Inc. Key competitors: Nikon, Sony, Konica Minolta, Olympus, Xerox, HP

Artykuł Canon pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

Dove: Body confidence campaigns prove our authenticity

Dove: Body confidence campaigns prove our authenticity

Marketing Week

Dove says it “walks the talk” when it comes to its body confidence campaigns, as it launches a toolkit to tackle body image anxiety among children.

American Express

by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

Category: Financial services – payment solutions Owner of the brand: American Express Company Key competitors: Visa, Mastercard, Discover, PayPal

Artykuł American Express pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

Moët & Chandon

by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

Category: FMCG Alcoholic beverages – champagne & wine Owner of the brand: LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE Key competitors: Nicolas Feuillatte, G.H. Mumm, Laurent-Perrier, Taittinger, Pommery, Piper-Heidsieck, Cristal

Artykuł Moët & Chandon pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

Category: Apparel – luxury apparel, FMCG Personal care & beauty – fragrances, make-up; Retail – fashion stores, e-retail Owner of the brand: Burberry Group plc Key competitors: Louis Vuitton, Hermès, Gucci, Prada, Ralph Lauren

Artykuł Burberry pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

Du Pareil au même: « Made for kids! »

by aufeminin @ Womenology » Brands Analysis

Born from the imagination of theatre designer Simon Bénarousse, who found children’s clothes too simple and boring, the brand “Du Pareil au même” (translation: “six of one, (and) half a dozen of the other”) has always been defined by fun …

Continuer la lecture

The post Du Pareil au même: « Made for kids! » appeared first on Womenology.


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Question 1


  • Adam sells the painting to Tania for ,500


    In this scenario, Adam functioned as an agent representing the artist, Pauline. He served as a third party to the principal, Pauline. To examine this set of circumstances, a closer look at the legal context of Australia is required. A huge part of the Australian legal system is based on common law system acquired from the English legal system. To this end, determining the outcome of this scenario may well be based on the principles of common law.


    In the said case, Adam was commissioned to sell Pauline’s painting at between ,000 and ,000. However, the painting was sold for much lesser than what was indicated in the agreement between the principal (Pauline) and the agent (Adam). At this point, the painting was sold for ,500 which is considerably far from what has been earlier agreed on. Nevertheless, it has also been stated in the case that the principal seeks a speedy disposal of the merchandise and should be notified if an offer to purchase the artwork for much less than the minimum amount agreed on.


    In looking at the said fact, the analysis would be based on the basic principles of agency law. At this context, it is assumed there was a contract between Adam and Pauline and that the directive provided by the principal that she be informed of an offer much lesser than the minimum of twelve thousand dollars is not followed by the agent. Specifically, there is no written approval of the said offer.


    Based on the said information and assumptions, it appears that Adam has failed to comply with several elements of his part of the contract. This essentially entails a breach on the contract that both principal and agent have agreed upon. To elaborate much further, the agent failed to inform the principal of the low price offered by a Tania and eventually sold the piece of artwork to the said third party. He had done this despite the fact that the principal has not given him the authority to sell the painting for the said price. Adam has failed to provide the principal information that appeared to have been critical to the decision to sell the merchandise. In this context, the agent failed meet the standards of reasonable care, skill, and diligence required and expected from him by the contract. This places Adam in a position where he is liable to Pauline. In this manner, he may be answerable to the remainder of the amount they have agreed upon. This means that Adam is liable to pay Pauline the remaining ,500 in order to satisfy the minimum amount, given that Pauline sought legal actions on the misdeeds of his agent. It is also important to note that Tania, being the third party, has no legal responsibility to Pauline since it appeared that the third party has dealt only with the agent.                 


  • Adam buys the painting on his own account for ,000 and subsequently sells it for ,000 to Tom.


    The key information on this scenario is whether Adam has communicated his intention to purchase the said piece of art to Pauline. This is information critical on the case of Pauline considering the fact that she expects the piece of art to as much as ,000. Nevertheless, it has also been stated in their agreement that she is willing to accept an amount as low as ,000 since she needs the money. Assuming that Adam indeed communicated to Pauline his intentions of buying the painting himself, then he have already shown intentions to bind legal ties. If Pauline responds positively to this situation, then a totally different contract is on imminent. The principle of offer and acceptance should be highlighted in this category.


    Offer and acceptance are among the initial steps in any transactions. For clarity and coherence, the concept of an offer will be discussed separately with the concept of acceptance. An offer should be unambiguous, comprehensive, and communicated to the other party. Thus, certain information disseminating materials that advertises the product to the public is not considered as an offer. An action that is deemed not an offer is portrayed in  (1893) wherein the correspondence is made through telegram. Moreover, the Privy Council noted that the offer was not binding since the mere statement of the lowest price to which the defendant was supposedly seeking to sell does not imply a clear indication of a contract between the two parties. The transaction was just a mere transfer of information. Moreover, once an offer is completed, it could still be withdrawn in any period before the acceptance. However, if the offer is under seal, it could never be revoked. Similarly, it is also possible for an offer to terminate provided that the cut-off date for the acceptance has transpired. On the other hand, an acceptance is the action that the other party undertakes in order to validate a contract. Thus, an acceptance denotes that the other party indisputably agrees with the terms of the contract. According to  (1992), the process of acceptance is twofold. The first one is the fact of acceptance and the other is the communication of acceptance. The offeror is able to dictate the stipulations of the acceptance. Offers could place precise conditions on acceptance and the acceptor is compelled to follow.


    Based on the discussions above, it appears that the scenario implies that Pauline indeed sold the artwork to Adam, thus he did not commit any breach if she accepted the offer from Adam to purchase it at the minimum amount. The acceptance of offer releases him from any fiduciary duty from Pauline. The sale of the said artwork makes Adam the owner of the object and is allowed to sell is at any price. And in so doing, he ceases to be liable to Pauline.  



  • Adam sells the painting to Thea for ,000. Thea considers this to be a bargain price and happily gives Adam ,000 for himself


    The discussions in this scenario still revolve around the contract between the principal and the agent. A contract comprises a “meeting of the minds”. In this context, it is stated that before a contract is signed and enacted, both parties have already established their purposes for joining the contract. In this scenario, the agent has found a buyer for the piece of artwork, which is what is expected by the principal. It has been sold within the price range in which the principal has indicated to the agent. The problem in this setting is revealed when the third party decided to give Adam an extra thousand dollars for his services since she thought of it as a highly considerable bargain.


    The relationship involving Pauline and Adam comprise a fiduciary relationship, it has its foundation in common trust and assurance. This means that any of the party involved should not take advantage of the other. And as stated to the agency principles, the agent considering his duties to the principal should not engage in activities that will compromise his loyalty to the principal. In this case, the acceptance of the extra money as a token of appreciation is considered a failure in the fiduciary duty of the agent. It is this seeming attempt to gain privately on the agency relationship that triggered this failure. With this failure of the duty, a breach of contract is present.


    Similarly, the Fair Trading Act of 1992 has similarly taken into account such unconscionable acts. (Article 13.1) Specifically, Article 18 of the said piece of legislation particularly noted that offering gifts and other prizes to the parties involved as an unfair practice. In the context of the case, the offer of an extra thousand dollars should be accounted to the principal by the agent.


    Question 2


  • Albatross


    In the context of Albatross, they could well push through with their contract with Canary. Based on the facts on their situation with Budgie, it is indeed true that an offer was made. However, because of several circumstances resulting to the swift receipt of Albatross’ intention to create contractual relations, Budgie failed to reply in time. At this instance, it appears that the action relevant in here is the intention of Albatross to bind legal ties with Budgie. An offer was sent but the acceptance was too late.


    In cases similar to this one, it is normally a general rule that the offer could be revoked any time the oferror wants to, provided that an acceptance has yet to be given. In this case, there has yet to be an acceptance on the part of Budgie since Albatross has sent the revocation of the offer fifteen minutes before the acceptance was sent in post. Albatross need not to worry about the issue of the Postal Rule considering the fact that they have communicated the withdrawal of the offer prior to the posting of the acceptance.


    Moreover, Budgie could claim something against Albatross considering that they are covered by Electronic Transactions Act of 1999. According to Section 14 of the said Act, the message has indeed been sent to Budgie since the electronic communication they sent through fax has left the control of the sender and has actually been received in the information system of Budgie. In the said Act, Section14.4 clearly stated that the electronic communication will be received when it comes to the attention of the receiver. This means that the communication of the revocation need not be read by the receiver to be considered communicated in this context. This reveals that Albatross has indeed taken the appropriate actions to address their situation with Budgie.


    On their situation with Canary, their agreement has been merely taken place through instantaneous messages. Though the agreement is theoretically complete with the communication of offer and acceptance, it is recommended to Albatross to seek a meeting with Canary in order to place their agreement in paper. In this manner, a more concrete representation of the agreement will be made. In the same manner, they could jointly agree on installing the specific stipulations in the agreement, aside from the initial offer of ,000 per annum. Moreover, it is also recommended that Albatross install specific clauses in the contract pertaining to the specific actions to be taken by both parties once a breach may take effect.     


  • Budgie


    The claim of Budgie appears to be very weak at its face value. Nevertheless, they may have a case if they do intend to acquire court actions against Albatross. In their perspective, it appears that they have acquired the offer at a late date. This is not their fault, as it was the responsibility of the offeror given that they have made considerable errors that became detrimental to the creation of the contract. The point of this matter is that an offer was indeed made and communicated to them by the offeror.


    And being interested in the offer, the company sent a reply the instant it have viewed the offer on November 6. As was instructed in the offer, the acceptance was made through post. In looking at this situation, it appeared that Albatross was indeed expecting the acceptance to come through mail. And with this stipulation in the offer, the Postal Rule is applicable. The claim of Albatross that they have not heard from Budgie seems to be inconsistent considering it was only several days since the offer was made. Budgie could claim that there was no time limit stated as a stipulation in the offer. (  (1866) LR 1 Ex 109) Similarly, they could have used other means of communication to verify whether the offer was indeed communicated to them. In this manner, they could have been informed that their letter was misplaced in the mail. ((1879) 4 Ex D 216)


    Another claim that Budgie could take is the termination of the offer. Though it is a general rule that the offeror could revoke the offer given that the acceptance has yet to be sent, ((1880) 5 CPD 344) the revocation was not properly communicated to Budgie. The company could also use the Electronic Transactions Act of 1999, particularly Section 14. Since the offeror have used an instantaneous means of communication to convey the revocation of the contract, Budgie could claim that they have not read the message after the acceptance has been posted. They could claim that the message may have been indeed sent through fax but they have failed to deal with it considering they were not expecting any message from Albatross from such medium. As stated in the said Act, it should come to their attention that a message was communicated. Given their situation with Albatross, they could not have reasonably expected the said company to make use of the fax machine as they have vehemently stipulated in their offer that communication must be made through post.               



  • Canary


    As their Albatross had rejected their offer, Canary may have been forced to accept the counter offer of the Albatross. If they feel that they have been disadvantaged by the counter-offer or felt that they have been forced into the contract, they could claim for economic duress. ( (I [1989] 1 All ER 641)


    Nevertheless, if they feel that the agreement may benefit them and felt that they have been treated fairly, they should set a meeting in order to establish specific conditions ( (1876) 1 QBD 410) and possible warranties for the implementation of the contract. ((1876) 1 QBD 183) In this manner, both parties’ interests are secured and specific courses of action are agreed upon once breach of contract take place.





    Morgan Stanley

    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Financial services – banks, asset management Owner of the brand: Morgan Stanley Key competitors: Goldman Sachs, Merrill Lynch, J.P. Morgan, Citi

    Artykuł Morgan Stanley pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Strategic Management of British Airways Company

    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

    Strategic Management of British Airways Company



                Transportation plays an essential role to the success of many businesses and organizations. Without efficient transportation, many supplies and raw materials will not be brought from one place to another. It has been reported that humans have always needed to get around from place to place, making the act of walking a limitation on the distance traveled and the things they could carry. Consider the innovations that help humans travel around and transport cargo, including automobiles, ships, and airplanes (2006). Through these innovations, humans were able to effectively and efficiently move from one place to the next with the convenience of bringing luggage and cargo.

    Today, through transportation, humans were able to make trade relations with one another. Many business organizations make it a point to travel to different cities and countries to promote their products and services. Traveling and promotion are now part of an organization’s strategic management. From this, airlines play a major importance in the success of business organizations around the world. Business organizations are able to widen their market by traveling to different places via the airlines. Their importance leads us to evaluate their strategies in dealing with their business. This paper aims to discuss the strategic management of a specific airline company and assess its effectiveness in the business.


    British Airways Airline Company

                It has been reported that the British Airways is the largest airline of the United Kingdom and one of the largest in the world, with more flights from Europe across the Atlantic than any other operator ( 2006). British Airways flies to over 550 destinations and to more than 130 countries worldwide, including London, major European centers such as Paris and Frankfurt, and Asian hubs like Hong Kong, Singapore and Bangkok (2005). This airline is synonymous with excellent service and quality and has always been regarded as a leader in the airline industry, and serves more than 35 million passengers annually. Its history traces back to 1924 when the five small British independent airlines merged under state guidance to form Imperial Airways. At present, British Airways operates out of London’s two main ports, namely Heathrow, which is the world’s largest international airport, and Gatwick (2005).

                For its travel classes, the British Airways offers four cabins. The first cabin is complete with fully flat seats, each in its own cocoon-style area with a seat for a companion to join the passenger for meals or for a chat. The second cabin is called the Club World, having flat bed sleeper seats. The third cabin is the World Traveller Plus, a premium economy services, offering more room in-flight and dedicated check-in desks, and the last cabin is the World Traveller, which is the airline’s economy, or coach class ( 2006).   


    Strategy Review of the British Airways

                Strategic management is that set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of a corporation, and includes aspects such as environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and evaluation and control ( 2006). Strategic management is important for every business, as it determines its success in the market, in its formulation and implementation of projects. One of the strategies of airlines is alliances or merges. Alliancing in airline industry seems persistent, as every international airline is forging alliances of some form, which can be traced as far back as the 1940s (2004). From a strategic perspective, airline alliances have become an inherent part of the task environment of airlines (2004). Alliances are beneficial for airlines in its control and maintenance on the business. Similarly, this strategy was adopted by the British Airways for better service. On March 31, 1924, Britain’s four airlines, namely, Instone, Handley Page, Daimler Airways, and British Air Marine Navigation merged to form Imperial Airways (2006b). However, during this time a number of smaller UK airline companies had started their operations, so in 1935, these airlines merged to form the original privately owned British Airways Ltd. The British Government in 1939 nationalized the airlines and after the Second World War, the airlines were combined to form the British Airways in 1974 (2006b). The driving factor behind alliances is long-term profitability, and their formation tends to be for strategic reasons, such as accessing larger markets, establishing global brand loyalty and building hub-to-hub traffic (1998). This move is advantageous for the airline to service more passengers and establish market reputation. Alliances or merges are part their strategic management plan, as being part of the strategy formulation and implementation. Strategy formulation and implementation is an on-going, never-ending, integrated process requiring continuous reassessment and reformation, is dynamic, and involves a complex pattern of actions and reactions ( 2006). Being dynamic, airlines tend to always innovate and improve their actions to further enhance the quality of their service.

                In addition, another way for the British Airways to cope with serious competition from other airlines, it continuously provides itself changes and innovation for better services. Strategic management, having its characteristic of being dynamic and complex, enables the British Airways to accommodate change. This change is done by improving the amenities of the airlines and developing new information systems as added services. It remains to be the world’s international airline and the first airline to offer jet passenger services, the first to operate weather-beating auto landings, the first to offer supersonic passenger services, and the first in the modern era to offer fully-flat beds (2006c). Due to the mentioned services, the British Airways were able to build a good reputation in the market and gain the trust of many customers. These has widened their industry and made the airlines to be “the world’s most favorite airline”.


    Core Business

                 British Airways is based at London Heathrow Airport in London, England, and has a commanding presence at Gatwick and Manchester International Airport. It has succeeded in dominating Heathrow to the point that the airport is commonly referred to as Fortress Heathrow within both the airline and its competitors (2006a). It serves flights to destinations in the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, India, France, Germany and other major countries around the world.

                Currently, British Airways has a modern fleet with an average age of 9.7 years, and consists of Airbus A319-100, A320-100, A320-200, Boeing 737-300, 737-400, 737-500, 747-400, 757-200, 767-300ER, 777-200, and 777-200ER (2006b). The type of aircraft, aircraft number, capacity and destinations are shown in the table.






    Airbus A319-100



    Short haul European and UK domestic routes

    Airbus A320-100



    Being replaced by Boeing 737-500

    Airbus A320-200

    (7 on order)


    Short haul European and UK domestic routes

    Airbus A321-200

    (3 on order)


    Short haul European and UK domestic routes

    Boeing 737-300



    Short haul European and UK domestic routes

    Boeing 737-400



    Short haul European and UK domestic routes

    Boeing 737-500



    Short haul European and UK domestic routes

    Boeing 747-400



    Long haul international routes

    Boeing 757-200



    Short haul European and UK domestic routes

    Boeing 767-300ER



    Long haul and short haul routes to the Caribbean, the USA and Europe

    Boeing 777-200



    Long haul routes

    Boeing 777-200ER



    Long haul routes

    From ( 2006a)


                Moreover, the British Airways have franchises from other airlines including the British Mediterranean Airways since 1997, the COM air in South Africa since 1996, the GB Airways of UK since 1995, the Loganair in UK since 1994, and the Sun Air in Denmark since 1996 (2006a). Due to these alliances, the British Airways were able to produce large sum of profits, shown in the table below.


    Year ended

    Passengers flown [4]

    Turnover (£m)

    Profit/loss before tax (£m)

    Net profit/loss (£m)

    Basic eps (p)

    31 March 2006






    31 March 2005






    31 March 2004






    31 March 2003






    31 March 2002






    31 March 2001






    31 March 2000






    31 March 1999






    31 March 1998






    31 March 1997






    31 March 1996






    From (‘British Airways’ 2006a)


    Strategic Changes

                Demand for air travel has declined since four planes were hijacked and used to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The world’s favorite airline, the British Airways, is one of the airlines that have been forced to cut jobs and routes ( 2001). Due to the incident, more problems bombard the company, such as the global slowdown in the travel industry, the lower demand for bookings, fuel costs rise sharply, insurance costs going up, and higher airport taxes ( 2001). From these obstacles, the company saw the need for strategic changes in attracting the market.

                As a solution to this decline, the airline offered improved amenities, including sleeper seats, in an attempt to lure business travelers at the expense of economy class customers ( 2001). It has unveiled £600 million worth of new customer services and products, which is the biggest investment of its kind in airline history, including flat beds in its ‘Club World’ long haul business cabin. Furthermore, the airline has added legroom in its ‘World Traveller Plus’ section. With this sections, British Airways passengers can now upgrade from traditional economy on extended flights without paying for a Club ticket (  2005).

                In addition, due to the arising problems in the company, the president, Bob Ayling attempted to have a merger with American Airlines, but failed due to regulatory problems ( 2001). With this, different presidents of the company did many more attempts to revive its reputation and decreasing performance.

                Moreover, in 2005, Cisco Systems and Prime Business Solutions announced a major network convergence project for British Airways to improve its communications for 14,000 offices and airport staffs. This project marks the sale of Cisco’s five millionth Internet Protocol (IP) telephone system, which is being developed and implemented by Cisco Gold Certified Partner, Prime, and will be the largest of its kind in the airline industry worldwide ( 2005). This improvement in the system of British Airways reduces costs and improves productivity through the integration of all voice and data communications onto a single network. It allows British Airways to remove the cost of inter-office telephone calls and will streamline the management and provisioning of telephony services throughout the company ( 2005). Furthermore, the networked capabilities of Cisco’s IP phone system will make the relocation of communications services quicker and easier (  2005). With this advantage, British Airways deployed 8,500 Cisco IP phone system to the company, and the project was completed in March 2006 ( 2005).



                The role of British Airways in the transportation industry is an important factor for many business organizations. With this, it is necessary to conclude that the British Airways continue to improve their innovations and systems as their strategies of developing their company. These are in accordance to their aim of increasing their profit and for rendering better services to their customers. With better services, the company can persist on maintaining their established reputation and image to their market. With their strategies, such as the mergers, and improvement of amenities and services, the company can attract more customers and can guarantee more improved service to many passengers and airline staff. These would not only generate more profit and prestige for the airline company, but would also foster harmony and good working environment for each employee. Continuous innovation and improvement in British Airways can sometimes produce problems, but with good leadership and company maintenance, development can be achieved properly and efficiently.


    Marks & Spencer

    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Retail – grocery stores, fashion stores, e-retail; Apparel – high street apparel; Financial services – banks; Energy Owner of the brand: Marks and Spencer plc Key competitors: Waitrose, Sainsbury’s, Tesco, John Lewis, Next, Debenhams

    Artykuł Marks & Spencer pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Professional services – technological solutions, management consulting Owner of the brand: Accenture PLC Key competitors: McKinsey, Deloitte, BCG, Bain, IBM, Capgemini

    Artykuł Accenture pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Financial services – insurance companies, asset management Owner of the brand: Allianz SE Key competitors: AXA,  Aegon, Generali, ING, Aviva

    Artykuł Allianz pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: FMCG Personal care & beauty – body care, deodorants, fragrances, hair care Owner of the brand: Unilever Key competitors: Nivea, L’Oréal, Gillette, Old Spice

    Artykuł Lynx pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Dove’s Emphasis on a Culture’s “Real Beauty”: A Comparative and Critical Analysis of American and Chinese Dominant Ideologies Revealed within Marketing Strategy (PDF Download Available)

    Dove’s Emphasis on a Culture’s “Real Beauty”: A Comparative and Critical Analysis of American and Chinese Dominant Ideologies Revealed within Marketing Strategy (PDF Download Available)


    Official Full-Text Paper (PDF): Dove’s Emphasis on a Culture’s “Real Beauty”: A Comparative and Critical Analysis of American and Chinese Dominant Ideologies Revealed within Marketing Strategy


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Apparel – high street apparel; Retail – fashion stores, e-retail Owner of the brand: Inditex Key competitors: H&M, Gap, Uniqlo, Topshop, Forever 21, Benetton

    Artykuł Zara pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Define, identify, discuss the historical development and demonstrate a broad comprehension of the nature of systems-oriented theoretical approaces to social issues

    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

    1. Define, identify, discuss the historical development, and demonstrate a broad comprehension of the nature of systems-oriented theoretical approaches to social issues. (5 pages)


    The study of human systems began in the twentieth century in the introduction of General Systems Theory.  This is a cross-discipline field assuming that social science can pin down the living and non-living and treat them as systems.  A Person In Environment (regarded as PIE) yields the suggestion of existing in a system that may be organized and arranged through social means.  By system, similarities are determined with relations to patterns, unities and connecting to a whole. Systems can be a group of people, or units such as “families, organizations, communities, societies, and cultures” (Anderson, Carter, Lowe and Gruyter, 1999, p. 4).  It is important to see the origin of social systems theory as beginning on Systems theory that came out influenced by various fields post-World War II.  To approach social science by systems has been a debate of scholars.  Systems itself is a vague term that may be employed and applied in several manners but what remains true is how they consistent of components or parts that function to form a whole in their own interdependent manner.


    Systems to put more simply and bluntly describe relationships and the workings of interactions.  The smallest unit of society is not the individual that will consist of the society as acollective but the most basic interaction or relationship the individual is able to bridge that will then form sequences, “patterns of exchange that occurs between individuals”.  According to Jacob and Tennenbaum, the smallest unit of society then is “the system of members in mutual and interdependent relationships with one another, not individual behavior in isolation of context” (p. 4).  Thus, a social system.  It then proceeds to say that society or the world’s root is not the person but the relationship and interaction this person forms with another.  The world, or society to say, cannot exist without communication.  This remains to be a general or broad take of what a system is supposed to be.  Systems may still be divided into levels or ranked to consist of suprasystems and subsystems according to Joan Jurish and Karen Myers-Bowman (1998).  Jurish and Myers-Bowman explain this configuration through the systems that consist a human body such as the “circulatory, digestive, neurological”, which may be regarded as subsystems consisting a whole suprasystem which is the human body.  Systems Theory has various assumptions:  First, it believes in holism which focuses on the sum whole than its parts (and which would be expounded further in Parsons’ section).  In holism, each interaction is an event that builds up to a pattern and forming a whole.  Secondly, it assumes that Living Systems are open in a way that it would actively initiate and bring forth exchanges and interactions rather merely taking the role of responsive individuals.  Human beings are also deemed to be intelligent enough to be reflective on what they do and know.  Reality is consequently a construct, subjective rather objective.  Systems Theory may educate how reality is perceived according to how it is organized and understood.  Above all, Society is self-sustaining on its own (Jurish and Myers-Bowman, 1998).       


    General Systems Theory may be considered as founded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy during the earlier half of the 20th century.  Bertalanffy became considered how the study of living beings can be so technical, scientific and mechanical.  This is said to limit and “neglect” as well as “deny” to how life functions.  Bertalanffy would rather for the perspective on Biology to be a living organism which cannot be pinned down by laws and concepts.  His theories were then published after the World War where systems theory began to be embraced by various cross-disciplines.  Jurish and Myers-Bowman (1998) add that the second World War in itself was a “major impact on the development of systems theory” where new fields such that of Norbert Wiener’s cybernetics was invented in order to further boost the defense weaponries of an army.  Cybernetics emphasized on “feedback systems and communication technology” which allowed a further appreciation of the systems theory as an appreciation of electronics lead to a re-evaluation of how the human brain functions. This application of systems theory was further expounded by Gregory Bateson who integrated both the cybernetic processes to that of human processes which further led to the utilization and application of systems theory to the social science especially the family (Jurish and Myers-Bowman, 1998)    


     The idea of social activity as identifiable and possibly treated as a system began in the ancient times when Greeks initially perceive of systems as resembling a body, each part with its own role to contribute to this body.  Then Thomas Hobbes was said to have taken the idea of society as an organism in his book, Leviathan.  These efforts inspire the idea of society as living and working together to sustain itself.     According to Kenneth Bausch (1999) Talcott Parsons was the first to apply systems theory in American society.  In the book, “The Social Systems”, he proposed the idea of organizing society in to systems as a viable and autonomous guide for research and study and not merely as limiting as “extensions of psychology or manifestations of culture”.   The actions of the individuals consisting a society is towards societal goals, “people are determined by society” (Anderson et al, 1999, p. 4).  Parsons emphasis is that people sum up to a whole and thus a system can only be understood in its whole than in dividing it into isolated parts.  What was prioritized then is the relationships between This is also called the Macro point of view.  Another proponent is Habermas who promotes the Action Theory which has to do with the necessity of communication in the existence of a society.  By this, individuals need to interaction with each other and form a culture that would stress the importance of roles and functions in order to sustain society in its ongoing processes.  This is a more interaction based point of view that emphasizes on the units that comprise society than the society that is collected and built up.  By emphasizing on parts, the point of view becomes the atomic.  In this regard, it is people who determine society than societal norms, culture and goals determining how people should function.  Society is dependent to the people that exist within it and thus, it is dependent on how the individual functions or behaves so to speak.  This behavior may comprise of a pattern that will then comprise of a system.   


    Thus maintaining the system can be performed in four ways.  Firstly is to maintain the sense of pattern through stability and institutionalizing such pattern (which may be a challenge to do in curbing the individual to the patterns.  The maintenance of the system may also be expressed by goal orientation wherein society is motivated towards the attaining of goals for the sake of the system.  Thirdly there is maintenance through adaptation which is through the sacrifice or disposal of some goals in respect to a more necessary one to maintain the organization.  Then fourthly there is the integration which is supposed to be the integration of the functions of pattern and goal orientation.  By integration, adjustment also becomes essential in order to fully accept goals towards the effectiveness and stability of a pattern.  It is what eventually keeps the system intact in its whole self.  


    The critique with the General Social System Theory was that it idealizes society as that is quiet, peaceful and orderly.  Society also comprises of stable and rational individuals all working towards unity.  It fails to include the possibilities of chaos, inequality and instability.  Scholars dispute that Social Systems are in reality, chaotic and complex as systems are subjected to constant change.  While General Systems Theory supposes that societies will proceed to one end, the Complex theory proceeds with the notion of multiple ends.  There is no circular motion nor is there a way to go back to where society started.  “Once a system has developed along a given path it cannot simply go back again.” This is because relationships upon interrelationships would have formed to “complicated and interwoven” heights.   This theory actually disputes the existence of a systems theory as it postulates human beings as inability to be contained and covered by science and unable to supply the multiple levels and dimensions which will enrich it.  It regards social systems as too complicated an understanding that cannot be pinned down (Franklin, Skeeter and Warren, 1998).


                In the application of System approaches to School District Management, systems theory holds that schools are managed in such a way that they would resemble “organizations, where teachers are accountable for their students’ results”.  Systems Theory also promote personalized, subjective and one on one learning where the learning is performed by the student and not provided by the mentor.  The philosophy behind this is that the school is a sum of a whole, of each student working positively.  Systems theory would make effective and efficient the educational institution through its arrangement of levels supra-systems and subsystems.  Because relationships and interactions are emphasized, teachers are encouraged to build relationships with students as students are also necessary in building relationships with each other.  With systems theory, students can indeed become “active learners seeking knowledge” because of the personal attention granted to them.  This means the school needs to be self-sufficient, open and reflective (Hong et al, 1997).


                Systems Theory calls for schools to be synchronized and united in one clearly defined purpose each subsystem with their purpose and functions to meet in order to allow the suprasystem to meet the said goal (through a feedback system).  Systems are also supposedly dynamic that will consist of “cycles and trends”.  School systems are also by assumption rational thus each child is worthy of such a treatment as rational beings (Sybouts, 1992, p. 25).         


    Schools should have “sufficient variety, or diversity” in order for it to be creative and responsive as well as self-regulating.  The school is influenced by all its constituents and goal-oriented which is usually the “intellectual and emotional development of students” (p. 18) through modified thoughts (output, as well as input of another system such as the student’s families or other systems).  In fact this is the major objective of each school which is to precisely “develop educated citizens” (p. 19). 


    The School District is a suprasystem containing ideally various interdependent subsystems such as the “classroom, an administrative council, a curriculum committee, or an extracurricular student club”.  The School District as a suprasystem has relationships with each of its subsystems and to a larger suprasystem such as its “community and regional environments”. The school will be an inter-working of systems and resources outside and inside.  Again, systems cannot exist without relationships so the very basic unit of school systems may be “tutoring pairs, project groups, committees, classrooms, school staffs, and entire districts” (p. 19).  The classroom or school staff themselves may be a suprasystem of subsystems such as friendship cliques.       


    Patricia Schmuck and Richard Schmuck (1974) provide the Principles for employing systems theories to the school organization.  According to the authors subsystems may consistent of “Learning groups, constituted of students, teacher(s) and curriculum materials.” Communication is established together through a sharing of data and responsibilities.  The learning group may only consist of a pair of people or the group can be the entire school district in itself.  The subsystems encourage interactions with one another.  The changes are performed top-down.  Personal relationships would also be established from the “I-Thou transactions.”  These systems also have specified goals (p. 21) and are designed in such a way that may predict future outcomes thus leading to flexibility.  The system also attends to the “emotional needs of members” in the achievement of the school mission as each member is increasingly sensitive of one another. Learning groups are also above all, interdependent along with the other subsystems and these systems continuously influence each other.  This is in lieu of the system theory’s premise of an open and flexible system.  This is usually the sources of conflicts due to discrepancies in goals and interdependence.  This is natural in a school within the system theory set-up according to Schmuck and Schmuck but the system also holds that it is self-regulating and able to communicate grievances enough to lessen stress caused by the conflicts.  There is also the availability of resources and the inevitability of culture. 


    In applying systems theory to schools, Schmuck and Schmuck propose a four-level framework.  To enumerate (1974, p. 94):


    1) The individual – Students, teachers, and administrators

    2) The learning group – Classrooms and committees;

    3) The school organization – The social procedures of the levels working together

    4) The external environment- School board, budget, and parents.


    By understanding the above mentioned levels, it may be even more possible to strategize a system-oriented school. 


    2. Critique systemic approaches to school district management associated directly systems-oriented theoretical approaches.


    Systems oriented approach to social issues has made its mark in managing or administrating schools especially since schools can be taken as organizations: suprasystems and subsystems.  The school is in every right a social system, not just of students and teachers, but also to the families of the students.  Thomas Cafferty and Frederic Medway (1992) considers the contribution of school psychology to school psychology.  They are related because they have similar origins and philosophies.  Cafferty and Medway proposes the treatment of schools as organizations and believe that this allow “effective intervention strategies” with regards to “structure, process and behavior.” Structure means Organizational Structure which is given rise by the mission statement of an organization.  It will determine the goal beliefs of the school and purposes of the school.  This may enhance the functioning of the organizations. 


    As organizations, schools may relate to each other and respond to each other.  Schools achieve its mission and goals precisely through the cooperation and coordination of its people and systems.  More basically, this is performed through constant communication, interaction and building effective relationships that may be guided by effective policies.  Everything in the school, despite having to deal with technical aspects such as “budgets, marketing, hierarchies” are systems that exist to manage relationships.   




    Bureaucracy was the common system or theory that has managed organizations such as schools.  The literature is rich with theories, studies, research, critiques as well as analyses.  For man times this structure was adapted to several organizations and fields.  It introduced concepts such as “decision making, leadership, motivation, organizational politics, and systems theory”(p. 39). Bureaucracies present hierarchies.  Some officials are higher than some and there are the presences of domination and authority (and thus subjection and accountability of subordinates).  Contracts govern positions, formality, loyalty, technicality, and employment that is paid by salaries.  The effect this has on schools is that there is “discontinuity”.  This also means the lack of relationships and a prevailing impersonality.  Roles are strictly and expected to be followed and employees are hired because of technical skills and abilities.  Divisions make it difficult for communication to take place and lack of awareness of one division to another.  Work has a tendency to be poorly distributed because some divisions have more responsibilities than others.  There is also the prevailing indifference from one division to another such that disables the possibility of assistances.   The lack of communication would lead to a lack of policies, a mission statement and core beliefs that would have been the administration’s way to communicate its goals to its subordinates.  By having no such communication or policies, there was a vague notion of what to do, how to plan and inconsistency.  Responsibilities were also unclear besides proceeding in a schedule.  The lack of communication also made it impossible for teachers or students to air their opinions.  Because there is a lack of policies, rules, orders and decisions were vague enough to cause internal conflicts, stress and tensions in the bureaucracy. 


    Thus, there is the Social Systems Theory as an alternative.  This involves the need towards communication, interaction and relationships such that the Bureaucracy Theory was unable to address.  The bureaucracy emphasizes hierarchy, structures and control while the social system theory involves a more meaningful and defined job beyond mere employment and salaries.  They are the sum of a whole, working together for the good of the organization.  Subjectivity is prioritized over objectivity as bureaucracy is deemed a dehumanized system for the lack of personal regard to them.  Social systems consider the role of relationships in shaping the individual’s behaviour within an organization.  It considers the organization as a culture, as consisting of roles, unique and gifted individuals and individuals as substantially enriched by socialization.  Roles, rather to be strictly and expected to be followed, are a means towards expression of oneself.  Roles, most importantly, are not only individual, but more importantly, social.  It involves relationships with other people as teachers for example are necessitated to construct relationships with students, colleagues, and their administrators in order to fully enact on their roles. 




    Inevitably some would see schools as organizations that are not ideal for Systems theory.  Learning may be taken as a complex activity than systematic and organized.  David Reilly (1999) emphasized how education reform efforts in American education were unsuccessful in producing more “acceptable learning outcomes” and only end up spending several billions of dollars towards an effective learning for students because it fails to consider learning as a chaotic and complex process.  Instead, the focus has largely been on systems theory.  Systems theory had apparently limited student learning through low expectations and rigid guidelines.  Nonlinear systems theory or the chaos and complex theory is said to be effective in understanding how a student learns and demonstrating this.  “Learning is clearly a developmental process” such that cannot be traced or generalized.  Students learn differently in different levels, ages, speeds and amounts due to the fact that each student has different ways in processing information.  Learning cannot be logical and rational as systems theory would hold.  Systems Theory, as mentioned earlier, assumes that there is equifinality and rationality in the organization in question.  It is a more optimistic and rather utopic point of view that Reilly (1999) disputes against.  Nonlinear systems theory hold that there is “irregular periodicity, sensitivity to initial conditions and minute changes in process, and lack of predictability” which also goes to say much as to how learning takes place.  There is no logical procedure.  Only then can teachers truly understand how students learn, by being open to various options rather set roles.  In a Linear systems theory, Curriculum guidelines are “predictable, sequential and linear” each with certain set expectations to meet such that may cause problems later as it may be invariable to the learning extent of the child.  In order to compliment the learner’s chaotic and unpredictable learning ability, the guidelines should not be set and in fact be interchangeable. 


    Bureaucratic Theory is usually regarded as the traditional model while systems theory is considered as the more innovative.  Bureaucratic is hard to disregard in favour of the systems alternative.  Tamar Levine, Hanna Shachar and Shlomo Sharan (1999) call systems theory as a combination while bureaucracies are known to divide through its specializations.  Bureaucracy does not pay attention to the environment or “on the horizontal (rather than vertical) relationships and interaction in the organization, the exchanges and information flow between colleagues” (p. 2).  Systems are known to, in the meantime, “exchange matter, energy and information with their environments” through processes and performances of inputs and outputs allowing it to be self-sustaining.  Feedback is taken here as a crucial ingredient in schools especially in reinforcing communication, interaction and relationships between the organization’s systems.  Feedback emphasizes that information comes not from one entity (the administration or authority) but rather, everywhere.  This may be teams of teachers who will combine forces in order to solve problems.   According to the three authors, this system remains to be unknown in today’s schools as the bureaucratic school remains prevailing.  All parts are dependent to hierarchy rather interdependent among each other.  Schools, according to Levine, Shachar and Sharan are “a strange kind of system” (p. 8) because the systems may not be as interdependent and rather, be “loosely connected” (p. 8)  This is true in the cases of students with irregular classes and classmates.  There is a prevailing disconnection between students and teachers.  For a true systems approach to take place within a school, there is really the necessity to invite innovative teaching methods that will generate feedback loops and interaction rather a one-sided learning (all from which produced and coming from the teacher).  Efforts include the changing of schedule, textbooks and inclusion of computer which will promote a sense of interaction.  Schools are largely dominated by divided disciplines which fail to see holistic connections.  In order to encourage communication among such mentors, they would need to group together and collaborate in solving problems and in the data gathering.  Teachers may also collaborate to “formulate schoolwide policies” (p. 9).  Basically, “there should be communication between teachers within and between departments dealing with different subject areas; it is equally important that such communication hold meaning for the students” (p. 10).  Teachers are responsible of whether the curriculum will be rigid or not, or the collaboration or division of which.  Once they are able to employ systems theory, it will be reflective and passed along from top down. 


    Levine, Shachar and Sharan (1999) consider “the concept of feedback for self-regulation and the goal-oriented nature of systems for transforming input to yield a product of some kind” (p. 16) as the Unique Contributions of Systems Theory to School Organizations.  This is because schools have a recurring problem of having sufficient feedback processes that will monitor its processes and allow it to be self-regulated.  The authors consider it an infamous problem of having “clear links between means and ends” due to the poor or lack of communication and inability to obtain feedback.  This is also brought by the fact that schools tend to follow the traditional Bureaucratic model.  This is largely because there is a lack of interest in being a community and accomplishing responsibilities to the good of the organizations.  The systems theory indeed perceives of the school as not just an organization but a community.  However bureaucratic tendencies still overwhelm and overpower the educational institution especially in teacher and classroom pattern.  Levine, Shachar and Sharan (1999) are adamant in their recommendation of using the teams of teachers model as a means towards generating feedback and the systems model.  Classrooms needed to be designed in such a way that will compliment the organization, “the whole” of the school.  As subsystems embody and are interrelated into suprasystems, classrooms perceivably “incorporate the basic features of the manner in which the school as a whole is organized and operates” (p. 56).  The school’s direction is enacted by the merest student following academic tasks.  


    The ideal school, or the school of tomorrow, will follow the systems theory.  There will be “interrelatedness” and “integration” as the school will react not only among itself but to its outside environment (or the community it belongs to).  In this manner, communication and interaction take place.  Teachers will not be divided in their own classrooms and disciplines for specific amount of times.  “The school’s organization will have considerable flexibility and mobility among its component elements” (p. 78) Decision is not only made by teachers but also teachers as participation and collaboration make up of the “critical decisions regarding teaching and learning”.  Instruction is not one-sided or coming from teachers alone, but students will be active learners “through processes of problem solving, discussion, investigation, simulation and so forth as individuals or as in teams”.  Students will not be alone in this undertaking as they will be supported by their mentors and the resources needed to perform this.  Students will also be guided by other people who may be masters in their professions in order to integrate real life experiences in education.  Resources will also include the latest technology and data all of which leading to a “production-oriented institutions”.  The mission of this said school will be communicated with its processes (means to ends) while being learner centred at the same time as the students’ “interests, needs, and successes” will be addressed as acquired by feedback.         



    3. ) Demonstrate an understanding of the major concepts in systems-oriented theories, and how they are expressed in the context of school district management structures.


    The Independent School Districts of Texas is one of the school districts which has been inching away from the Traditional fold, which would be the Bureaucratic way of managing a school district.  It has been adjusting to environmental changes along with other public school districts.  The changes have been from top down leading to a School wide Reform to redefine how its organizations and systems are arranged.  Bureaucratic systems are known  to under utilize and waste human and physical resources due to the lack of integration and interrelation.  The State of Texas has consequently promoted a system of organizational changes through small districts or charter school districts.  Charter school districts as well as Independent School Districts are now tasked to apply such change. 

    Having discussed system theories and having treated schools as organizations and having established the growing awareness to reform U.S. education by policy makers from top down, the paper will proceed to apply what has been established to the Charter school Districts and I.S.Ds in the State of Texas.   This involves raising the bar to higher standards for not only the students to meet but also the teachers.  The immediate solution that appears was the improvement of the system, the organization in which the school functions.  Each individual is responsible and expected to accomplish their roles towards an improved learning and enhanced interaction through feedback.  The school will also acknowledge that each subsystem is very much representative of the whole.  The State of Texas has taken the challenge to upgrade itself to a higher more effective form of education.  To do this, the change needs to take place within the system which means acknowledging the need towards interrelations and a clear goal.  Most educational reforms opt to enhance a school’s resources which would not be as useful and contributing if it was not integrated along with the internal system, processes and results.  If there is no cohesion or an innovative take in education, the reforms will find it difficult to surface.  For systemic change to take place and for it to be totally comprehensive and penetrating, an educational environment should ideally employ a systems approach towards change.  When one says top-down, that means the Federal government, to the local government, to the school district, to the school building in itself and to its very core: the classroom (which as emphasized, is a suprasystem of subsystems).  The administration is linked to the instruction department (consisting of teachers) while the government supports the administration.    By creating a flow of communication, interaction and relationship among the systems, systems may be open and flexible.  It is necessary for the Educational system to be open because it needs to interact with its environment and within it.  In this manner, evaluation and adaptability may be performed.   By cohesion, it is possible for a system to function as a whole, from the classroom to the government level.  There are Six Design Phases for a systems approach which is Planning, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. (Russo-Converso, 2001, p. 22)

    ·        Plan: Determine desired outcomes, identify stakeholders that include sponsors, advocates, change agents, and change targets.


    ·        Analysis: Identify gap between “what is and what should be” and causes of the gap. Select alternative solutions (e.g., innovations and interventions) to close or eliminate the gap.

    ·        Design: Create guidelines and processes for implementing and evaluating selected solutions.

    ·        Development: Create innovations and interventions to close or eliminate the gap between “what is and what should be.”

    ·        Implementation: Diffuse the innovation and intervention.

    ·        Evaluation: Formatively measure the effectiveness and efficiency in terms of desired outcomes for the purpose of continuous improvement.


    The State of Texas Public Education Mission and Objectives is that every child is given quality education to allow them to reach their potentials and contribute as well as participate in their society.  Students will be encouraged and granted several opportunities in order to attain growth and meet standards not only local but also international.  The teachers will similarly have to be qualified and effective.  Emphasized also is the need to train and develop them.   The credo also mentions the needs of an environment that promotes safety and learning, critical to a systems approach organization.  One objective is of critical note: “Educators will keep abreast of the development of creative and innovative techniques in instruction and administration using those techniques as appropriate to improve learning” This one objective emphasizes the openness towards a systems approach of the Texas Public Education system.  There is also the goal towards resources and implementation of technological resources in order to “increase the effectiveness of student learning, instructional management, staff development, and administration”.  There is a top-down approach towards the implementation of technology which also is an objective of a systems approach in order to enhance interaction and communication.  The objective emphasizes how improvement must not only be made in the part of students but also the teachers and administrations.    


    It is important for Teachers to construct relationships with students, colleagues, and their administrators in order to fully enact on their roles.  As they determine the instructional department of the school, constant training would be enormous in its contribution to allow them not only to work among students but among themselves as they could expertly provide evaluation and feedback regarding the school system.  In this manner, there will be a bridging of communication rather the disconnection that has been plaguing poorly modelled bureaucratic schools.  Teachers can enormously contribute to the curriculum which makes their training truly important and they have what it takes to bringing cohesion in a divided school organization.  Teachers make critical decisions rearding the school system which emphasizes the need towards participation and collaboration in their part.  

    Branding in the Age of Social Media

    Branding in the Age of Social Media

    Harvard Business Review

    A better alternative to branded content


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: FMCG Non-alcoholic beverages – soft drinks Owner of the brand: Dr Pepper Snapple Group (US), PepsiCo (rest of the world) Key competitors: Sprite

    Artykuł 7up pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    SWOT analysis of Dove - Dove SWOT analysis

    SWOT analysis of Dove - Dove SWOT analysis


    Here is the SWOT analysis of Dove which is one of the strongest brands in the product portfolio of Hindustan Unilever. Dove has presence in various products

    Three Brand Management Theories

    by (william oakley) @ Introduction To Brand Management

    There are many theories relating to the brand management techniques, but those which also tell the strategies to perform better are discussed below:

    1. Theory of Brand Loyalty:

    The theory of brand loyalty explains the relationship of customers' psychology with the brand of a company. According to this theory, the positive behavior of a customer towards a brand has three different aspects: Emotional attachment, Brand evaluation, and Behavioral aspect. The first aspect relates to the emotional attachment of customer with the brand. That is, how much he likes or dislikes a product. If this is positive, he will always be inclined to buy this product and will never go to even check other companies' products.

    2. The Branding Theory:

    This theory provides guidance on some important typical components of brand management including;

    1. The assignment of a specific name to the brand which can portray the business standards,
    2. Then making the people aware of this brand,
    3. Try to provide what they want,
    4. Establish a relationship with your very first customers, and then keep on growing
    5. And try to reach the top with no compromise in any function of brand development.
    3. The Value-based brand Theory:

    This theory explains that the value-based brands are intended to build long term customer value. The success all depends upon the value which the brand delivers to the customers. The value-based brand theory argues that the customer is the supreme spirited contrivance to defeat the competitors. It says a brand's life blood is the customer, nothing else.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Electronics & technology – video game consoles; Media & entertainment – games, streaming services Owner of the brand: Sony Corporation Key competitors: Xbox, Nintendo

    Artykuł PlayStation pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Product Launch Analysis: Dove for Men's Marketing Camapign

    Product Launch Analysis: Dove for Men's Marketing Camapign

    Schneider Associates

      Unilever’s Dove has always geared its products toward women, but theSunday Super Bowl ad revealed a new play call. Dove has recently launched a line for men: Men+Care, which will include three body washes, two bar soaps and a scrubber. The Dove Men+Care will be Unilever’s biggest brand launch this year. The Dove Men+Care campaign aims to celebrate real …

    Why do brands need media muses?

    by aufeminin @ Womenology » Brands Analysis

    “In reality, women are more ‘real,’ and not as perfect as Adriana Karembeu. People need reality, they need truth.” These are the words of Nicolas Chomette, head of Black & Gold, a design and strategy company. He adds, “Sometimes we …

    Continuer la lecture

    The post Why do brands need media muses? appeared first on Womenology.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Financial services – payment solutions Owner of the brand: Mastercard Inc. Key competitors: Visa, American Express, Discover, PayPal

    Artykuł Mastercard pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Media & entertainment – TV & Internet providers, TV channels, streaming services; Telecommunications Owner of the brand: Sky plc Key competitors: Virgin Media, BT, BBC, Channel 4, Netflix

    Artykuł Sky pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Automotive – cars, luxury cars; Energy – energy storage systems Owner of the brand: Tesla Motors Key competitors: Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Audi, Shell, ExxonMobil, BP

    Artykuł Tesla pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Oiselle: When a brand really means it -

    Oiselle: When a brand really means it -

    Union Metrics

    How women's activewear brand Oiselle is living their values top to bottom and even out to their choice of influencer partnerships.

    Mountain Dew

    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: FMCG Non-alcoholic beverages – soft drinks Owner of the brand: PepsiCo Key competitors: Sprite, Red Bull

    Artykuł Mountain Dew pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Goldman Sachs

    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Financial services – banks, asset management Owner of the brand: The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. Key competitors: Morgan Stanley, J.P. Morgan, Merrill Lynch, Citi

    Artykuł Goldman Sachs pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Luxury & sales force: learn to manage brand ambassadors

    by aufeminin @ Womenology

    Of the top fifteen international luxury brands, seven are French. French brands represent 25% of the world market in luxury personal assets (fashion, accessories, perfume, watches and jewellery), or 212 billion euros (Cabinet Bain & Company – 2012). (1) In …

    Continuer la lecture

    The post Luxury & sales force: learn to manage brand ambassadors appeared first on Womenology.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Apparel – high street apparel; Retail – fashion stores, e-retail Owner of the brand: H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB Key competitors: Zara, Gap, Uniqlo, Benetton, Topshop, Forever 21

    Artykuł H&M pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: FMCG Non-alcoholic beverages – soft drinks Owner of the brand: Coca-Cola Company Key competitors: Tango, Mirinda, Sunkist, Orangina

    Artykuł Fanta pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Media & entertainment – social media Owner of the brand: Microsoft Corporation Key competitors: Viadeo, Facebook, Google, Twitter, Medium

    Artykuł LinkedIn pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Why market research and analysis are essential for every company’s success

    by Glow Team @ Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG

    There are so many ways for a business to accomplish their goals and achieve the riches. They can innovate new products, find niche markets, or drive their operations to be more efficient. But the key to a company’s success is a combination of market research and market analysis. A lot of businesses don’t conduct their […]

    The post Why market research and analysis are essential for every company’s success appeared first on Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG.

    Dove SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

    Dove SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

    MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

    SWOT analysis of Dove is covered on this page along with its segmentation, targeting & positioning (STP). Analysis of Dove also covers its USP, tagline / slogan and competitors.

    The State of IoT in the Home: Part 2

    by Ed Terpening @ Prophet Thinking

    Opportunities and challenges for brands selling IoT products for the home.

    The post The State of IoT in the Home: Part 2 appeared first on Prophet Thinking.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: FMCG Alcoholic beverages – beer & cider Owner of the brand: Anheuser-Busch InBev Key competitors: Heineken, Coors, Miller, Carlsberg, Grolsch, Stella Artois, Fosters

    Artykuł Corona pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Lego and gender marketing: a strategy under construction

    by aufeminin @ Womenology » Brands Analysis

    After several years of research on behavioral differences in boys and girls, in January 2012, the Lego brand launched a new range for girls; Lego Friends. How does this strategy work? What affinity has Lego established with girls since its …

    Continuer la lecture

    The post Lego and gender marketing: a strategy under construction appeared first on Womenology.

    The video of the year

    by (Dove Axe) @ Different axes of Beauty

    The other day, I was going to the university. In order to not waste my time I read the free newspaper 20Minutes. There was an article about the most shared advertising video on the Web in 2013. The video “Dove Real Beauty Sketches” was the winner! You remember, some women describe their own face, one of their relatives describe it too to a drawer expert in robot portray from FBI placed behind a curtain. After drawing the two portrays, we can see that women have a bad image of their beauty, they seam withdraw; whereas the portray of their relatives show a beautiful face and an open-minded person. This video has been watched 60 billions times, has been shared 4.24 billion time through Facebook, Twitter and Internet according to Unruly (that the society of video technology). I think it is a good job that Dove has done, because we all remember that is Dove, as the famous video “Dove Evolution”, and we do not see any product of the brand Dove…
    That is a pity to see that women have as that much a wrong image of themselves and Dove points it out by showing women how beautiful they are.



    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Education & art – educational resources, schools & universities; Media & entertainment – publishers Owner of the brand: Pearson PLC Key competitors: McGraw-Hill Education, Kaplan, Cengage Learning, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

    Artykuł Pearson pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: Financial services – banks, asset management Owner of the brand: Santander Group Key competitors: HSBC, Citi, Wells Fargo, Barclays

    Artykuł Santander pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.


    by Magda Adamska @ BrandStruck

    Category: FMCG Household products – laundry products Owner of the brand: Procter & Gamble Co. Key competitors: Persil, Surf, Omo

    Artykuł Ariel pochodzi z serwisu BrandStruck.

    Dove Repositioning

    by (Dove Axe) @ Different axes of Beauty

    Dove underwent drastic market repositioning from the original advertising of their beauty bar launched in 1957. Their positioning then was based on the revolutionary aspect that it claimed to not dry out the skin the way regular soap did. This proved to be successful seeing as it was the “#1 Dermatologist Recommended brand in the US, Canada and France and strongly endorsed by Dermatologists across the world” (Unilever).