Dove Marketing Analysis

Dove Marketing: Real Beauty, Real Lessons

Dove Marketing: Real Beauty, Real Lessons

Business 2 Community

Dove just got real with their branding efforts. Though best known for soap, Dove has recently engaged in a Real Beauty campaign to fight against the unrealistic beauty standards set forth by the fash…

Twitter CEO promises overhaul of ‘clunky’ ad offering

by Sarah Vizard @ Marketing Week

Twitter's boss Jack Dorsey admits the platform hasn't done enough to differentiate its ad product or prove to advertisers that it works.

The post Twitter CEO promises overhaul of ‘clunky’ ad offering appeared first on Marketing Week.

Dove Social Media Analysis Summary

Dove Social Media Analysis Summary

Her Marketing Blog

As some of you may know, I’m taking a social media marketing course this semester, which is why this blog was started in the first place. Most recently, as mentioned on Twitter, our class ass…

If Dove expects women to cheer up, it hasn’t been paying attention | Harpreet Purewal

If Dove expects women to cheer up, it hasn’t been paying attention | Harpreet Purewal

the Guardian

The wage gap will close in 2069, sexual harassment is rife, and yet the purveyor of soap wants women to stop being negative. How dare they?

Apple, GDPR, Nespresso: 5 things you need to know this week and why

by Sarah Vizard @ Marketing Week

Catch up with all the week's news including the launch of the premium iPhone X, Nespresso's first sustainability campaign and Facebook's new ad controls.

The post Apple, GDPR, Nespresso: 5 things you need to know this week and why appeared first on Marketing Week.

Apple, Nike, BT Sport: The top 10 YouTube ads in August

by Leonie Roderick @ Marketing Week

The most popular ads on YouTube last month included Dwayne ‘The Rock’ Johnson teaming up with Apple’s Siri and Nike exploring what goes into an athlete’s smile.

The post Apple, Nike, BT Sport: The top 10 YouTube ads in August appeared first on Marketing Week.

The Best of Global Digital Marketing in Taipei, Taiwan

by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

9th December 2016 

Disney shifts focus to put digital content at the heart of its brand partnerships

by Leonie Roderick @ Marketing Week

Disney is launching its own digital ad network as it looks to “monetise content that hasn’t been monetised in the past”.

The post Disney shifts focus to put digital content at the heart of its brand partnerships appeared first on Marketing Week.

How Dove's 'Real Beauty Sketches' Became The Most Viral Video Ad Of All Time

How Dove's 'Real Beauty Sketches' Became The Most Viral Video Ad Of All Time

Business Insider

Details on the media plan behind it.

3 Ways to Use Recipes in Your Marketing

by Roseanne Luth @ Brandingmag

As any marketer for food brands knows, grocery e-commerce is taking off. It was big news when Amazon recently acquired Whole Foods, a move to compete with Walmart. It marks an important shift in the grocery sector, where grocery retailers can no longer rely on either brick-and-mortar stores or e-commerce, but need both. Grocery shopping […]


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Buyer Behaviour:  “Culture” is a Money Making Scam


Today’s market is characterized by highly competitive organizations which are all vying for consumer’s loyalty. Firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: company growth. However, external factors are not the only elements which influence growth. There are also internal factors, components working within the organization which shape the direction of the company.


Despite the economic and technological conditions that make it possible now to promote products and services in a larger consumer market, there are other factors that still need to be considered for a business organization reach out easier to their target market. Looking into the characteristics and thought processes of the people still holds as the most significant factor to be looked into by the individuals in the field of sales and marketing. The large scope of market can pose a hindrance to a successful marketing strategy in terms of over generalized definition of the target or niche market.


According to  and  (2001), consumer buying behaviour refers to the buying behaviour of the individuals and households who buy the goods and services for personal consumption. Consumers around the world are different in various factors such as age, income, education level and preferences which may affect the way they avail of goods and services. This behaviour then impacts how products and services are presented to the different consumer markets. There are many components which influence consumer behaviour namely: cultural, social, personal and psychological ( & , 2001). These characteristics cannot be controlled by the companies; therefore, there is a need to assess these elements in order to create an effective marketing plan.


For the business people and the people in the field of advertising and marketing, the product or service being offered could be a good start in planning and executing an effective campaign. Knowing the product and its demands in the market as well as the people who will likely avail and take advantage of the offer will open the possibilities for a campaign that will be most ideal in the market. The manufacturers and the advertisers should be conscious enough to know the characteristics of their product and its demand. There are products and services that are only utilized in a particular location because of the unique lifestyle of the people. The character of the product, if properly studied, could be made and taken as an advantage rather than a drawback in gaining a larger number of target market. The advertisers especially the people in the creative department should answer to such demands in the advertising industry. 


In this age of globalization and information technology, deciding which brand to choose can be a problem. Competition is evident and intense, and the marketing and management divisions of corporations are surely giving everything they can to establish their brands. A fine and well-advertised brand might have a competitive edge from a lesser exposed brand name. But then, a lesser known brand can also have an edge over price, given that they cost less than known brands. However, in the end, the decision still lies within the consumers.


In today’s business world, the value and importance of customers is not something that should be set aside by companies. Marketing plans and strategies would be incomplete without paying much consideration to the customers. Customers will always be a part of the agenda in any marketing plan of any company. Because of the implications for profitability and growth, customer retention is potentially one of the most powerful weapons that companies can employ in their fight to gain a strategic advantage and survive in today’s ever increasing competitive environment (, 1999).


Consumers can either be subjective or objective, testing the persuasiveness of brand names. Retail stores selling the products also play an important role in swaying the decisions of consumers. The whole package or visual appeal of the retail outlet can determine sales, or the service of the sales ladies or the clerks. Furthermore, consumers may choose particular products/brands not only because these products provide the functional or performance benefits expected, but also because products can be used to express consumers’ personality, social status or affiliation (symbolic purposes) or to fulfill their internal psychological needs, such as the need for change or newness (emotional purposes) (, 2002). These are just some of the factors that affect consumer behaviour. They have been the subject of consumer research for years, for instance, linking them with customer service and customer satisfaction, or the efficacy and persuasiveness of advertisement, etc.


According to the : “Consumers purchase products and services for the benefits derived from their use. While the study of economics focuses on outcomes, consumer behaviour emphasizes the process. Rather than assuming perfect conditions, researchers of consumer behaviour explicitly recognize the impact of situational elements on behaviour and the variance among individuals faced with the same conditions” which means that consumers buy products for the benefits they reap out of it, the study of consumer behaviour investigates the steps, or the processes involved regarding the decisions made by the consumer. Most consumers regard the purchase of real estate to be ‘high involvement goods’ that require complex decision-making,’ in purchasing real estate, such as houses, apartments or units,  consumers usually go through three key processes before they consider buying, and these are: information search, evaluation of alternatives and decision rules.


,  and , emphasized that “consumer behaviour is best understood as problem-solving behaviour.” Consumer behaviour is related to certain motivational behaviors that are aimed towards attaining a certain goal at the end. Goals, according to developmental psychologists are “cognitive representations of desired-end status which serve as standards in the control of behaviour. Research on sensation and perception, attention, categorization, inference making, information search, memory, attitude and behaviour, attitude formation and formation, conditioning and satisfaction have been undertaken to understand consumer behaviour. In the area of sensation and perception and attention, most works are confined primarily to visual or auditory processes. Among the studies on this area include those of  and  (1994) who examined attention to packages on store shelves, as measured by eye fixations.


Based on the integrated model, culture influences behaviour through its manifestations: values, heroes, rituals, and symbols ( and , 2001). The combination of both etic and emic perspective on the manifestations can basically reveal culture’s strong relation with customer behaviour. The etic philosophy is based on the definition of culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another’’ (, 1997). On the other hand, the emic philosophy stresses upon understanding issues from the perspective of the subjects being studied ( and , 2001). As cited from  (1988), this philosophy determines the coordinates of social action and productive activity, specifying the behaviours and objects that issue from both.


Values are basically the basis of one’s attitude or restriction in attitude. Some examples of values include freedom, pleasure, inner harmony, and happiness. Heroes, on the other hand, refer to icons in the society that may have an impact on people of different levels. Examples of heroes are sports figure or pop culture figures.  and  (2001) stated that heroes may influence consumer behaviour through their association with certain products and brands. The same goes with rituals, or symbolic activities commonly performed over and over, such as bathing, tooth brushing, attending to mass, to school, etc. Their involvement on the consumption of consumer products makes them important for consumer behaviour. Finally, symbols are equally important because different cultures have different symbols that they favor i.e. language, logos, signs, etc ( and , 2001).


Meanwhile, of all the components of a marketing plan, the most essential of all these elements, but most often the most overlooked is the definition of the target market. And yet, no one can proceed to a communication plan without answering the question of who do the company have to convince to buy the product or service. Market segmentation is the identification of sub-groups within the total market that the company wants to target. This fully recognizes that buyers of any product or service category need, desire, want and expect different performance characteristics from products or services in the category. It helps the company to position the product properly and prepare marketing strategies to satisfy a more focused range of consumer needs and wants. Furthermore, it is also a factor in effectively using limited marketing resources, identifying unique market niches, improving profitability and helping to retain consumer loyalty.


Companies now face the challenge of making its target consumers respond accordingly to their marketing efforts. Those who understand its consumers’ responses will have a great competitive advantage. The starting point towards this is through the stimulus-response model of buyer behaviour which involves examining the marketing and other stimuli in the consumer’s black box that translates into buyer responses ( & , 2001). Marketing stimuli often consist of the four P’s of marketing: product, price, place and promotion while the other stimuli may include economic, technological, political and cultural factors which exist in the marketing environment. All marketing communications should be directed to a particular target. This aspect suggests that in implementing marketing communication, the company should clearly identify the targeted constituents and stakeholders, or to whom the marketing communication strategy should be directed ( and , 2002). The purpose of this aspect is for the company to create or apply communication instruments that will encourage the market to purchase or patronize the product.


It is always important to know the characteristics and nature of the products and services offered by any advertising campaign because this will guarantee the success of the marketing strategy. But knowing the product alone can be detrimental in any marketing plan if the advertisers and the manufacturers themselves have no idea of the new target market they are trying to penetrate. The fact that there are really products and services that cannot be applied or utilized in a particular country should be a constant thought and reminder to the advertisers and business organization with plans of gaining entrance and share of clients and consumers. The services and products should be correctly classified as to whether they will be sellable in the new market. The lifestyle and daily routines of the people in the new target market should be likewise considered to ensure that the products and services offered will be able to enter the new market in a different locality. Conducting researches and market studies on the purchasing power and the consumer behaviour of these people will benefit the business organization to conceptualize, transmit and channel the correct advertising message to the target. Hopefully, this will eventually attract the interest of the target audience and gain their loyalty to the product or service being made available to them.


             The products or services should always be in synch with the tastes, lifestyle, economic status and purchasing power of the prospect foreign target market.  If the contrary of the case, it may also worthy to consider the time frame in which the marketing strategy and advertising plan will be duly employed and utilized in a foreign locality with different cultural orientation. Time is also the factor to be considered in conceptualizing and contextualizing a product or service innovation as well as its launching or introduction in the market. Even though the concept of the strategy is a standardized advertising campaign, the people who will be responsible in executing the said project should be sensitive enough to investigate on the local environment. The same advertising campaign does not necessarily mean that the strategy, plans and approached that will be utilized is similar. Too much generalization about a locality and the people who will be the target of the campaign may post danger on the success of the project. It is important to get close to the audience by knowing their culture.



















Is the way you track conversions damaging your campaigns?

by Tina Desai @ Marketing Week

One of the biggest challenges in marketing over recent years has been tracking the value and efficacy of campaigns. Focusing on last-click conversions could be significantly damaging our marketing - but not in the way you think.

The post Is the way you track conversions damaging your campaigns? appeared first on Marketing Week.

Mark Ritson: Spreadsheet jockeys are misunderstanding the marketing funnel

by Mark Ritson @ Marketing Week

Too many people are confusing the marketing funnel, thinking it is all about marketers when really it's all about the consumer.

The post Mark Ritson: Spreadsheet jockeys are misunderstanding the marketing funnel appeared first on Marketing Week.

Uber brand takes another hit as it loses London licence

by Sarah Vizard @ Marketing Week

Transport for London says Uber is not “fit and proper” to hold a private hire operator licence as it raises concerns over a lack of corporate responsibility.

The post Uber brand takes another hit as it loses London licence appeared first on Marketing Week.

International round-up: Coca-Cola’s new corporate campaign, Uber sues mobile agency

by Marketing Week Reporters @ Marketing Week

Coca-Cola looks to make its corporate brand about more than just Coke Coca-Cola has launched a new corporate branding campaign in the US that aims to portray it as a “total beverage company” and shift the focus away from its most famous product. The spots, which are airing on US TV, feature a wide range […]

The post International round-up: Coca-Cola’s new corporate campaign, Uber sues mobile agency appeared first on Marketing Week.


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

This study is based on the scenario on the Harrison-Keyes, a global publisher of books, journals, and educational materials. The paper discusses the problems that are faced by the company with its new strategy: e-book publishing. This strategy has been the company’s solution to the current tough competition in the publishing industry. The paper aims to present the problems that are associated with this new strategy and the ways on how the company should handle and solve these problems.

            This study’s objective is to present the importance of having the right organization that fits to the strategy of a company. It aims to determine the effect of the organization to the implementation of a strategy especially a global strategy that can bring changes to the production process, distribution and marketing channel that will demand new ways of organization.

            Harrison-Keyes is a leading global publisher of technical, scientific, business books and journals, professional and consumer books, textbooks and educational reading materials since 1899. The company holds about 22,700 active titles and publishes about 2000 new titles each year. In recent years, the company has felt the competition from low-cost retailers and other publishing industry players. As an answer to this challenge, the company hired a new CEO who strongly proposes a new strategy for the Harrison-Keyes, the e-book publishing.

            With the e-book publishing strategy, many problems arise, from the alignment of the company’s core business to the strategy, to leadership as well as financial problems.

             The basic problem of the company came to the challenge of still gaining the top position in the publishing market by creating another market through the e-book publishing strategy. E-book publishing strategy is basically the publication of books through the internet. A company which utilizes the internet and other advancement in technology should have a good information technology system and information system strategy to capitalize the technology properly. This has been the first problem of Harrison-Keyes, the lack of established information technology system. First of all the CIO of the company lacks a strong background in technology. The company needs a CIO that has strong knowledge and can align the company’s information technology system with the implementation of e-book publishing. In most multinational companies today, both the productivity and competitiveness are dependent on an ability to generate and make use of information (Hillesund, 2001). The information needed for the implementation of e-books is a digital and network based technology for both distributing and reading books which needs technological competence, financial resources and access to information (Hillesund, 2001).

            Moreover, production of e-books has been largely digitized. Writing, layout, and pre-press preparations are computerized and the publishing workflow is all network-based (Hillesund, 2001). This means that the company needs a standardized information system that will make its production reliable. Publishers will no longer be mere producers of paper books, but digital content agents, producing content in several formats and for different distribution channels, Publishers will produce books on paper and on demand in various digital formats, changing the structure of book production (Hillesund, 2001). The traditional information system of Harrison-Keyes will need a great change to adapt to technological changes brought about by e-book publishing. The company needed a strategic plan like updating their systems to fit to the digital content. Publishers like Harrison-Keyes need to relate to new technologies and should meet the special requirements on structuring and formatting of e-books. To be competitive in the world of digital books, a certain level of competence in the area of technology will have to be developed within the organization and more on to the research and development department of the company.

With the leadership of its CIO, Harrison-Keyes could have been started the project by planning it carefully, making sure that the project was backed up by reliable and capable systems, ensuring that all information and resources needed for the project will be distributed and allocated properly. The company basically needs an integrated information system that will help track its authors and books-in-process as well as the sales and royalties. The company needs a CIO that has strong technical qualifications plus a background in finance, marketing and strategic planning. With today’s technology driven industries, the role of the CIO is moving from technical planning and implementation to strategic planning. CIO tends to focus on the planning and implementation of specific information technologies, rather than on long-term company strategy (Anonymous, 1999). The current CIO of Harrison-Keyes lacks most these skills and the company should consider hiring someone more qualified to the current business plans of Harrison –Keyes.

Another problem of the company is the deal and communications with one of the company’s stakeholders, the outsourcing company, Asia Digital Publishing. Harrison-Keyes’ production manager is having a hard time communicating with the company that will format the e-books and is causing a significant delay to the implementation of the e-book project.  The Asia Digital Publishing which was hand-picked by the company’s Executive Vice President for Global Strategy has a good reputation on the business. Looking at the situation, it seems that the problem is in the part of the production manager of Harrison-Keyes. Although he has been in the publishing industry for 25 years, e-books strategy is new to him and with the background of the company’s executive vice president in global strategy and consulting firm, she will not go wrong in picking up a company that should work with Harrison-Keyes.

To solve this issue, Harrison-Keyes might need a staff that will coordinate with Asia Digital, a staff who has good public relation, strong technical background on e-book productions and has good experience dealing with foreign suppliers. A good collaboration with a company that offers formatting for the e-books, along with Digital Rights Management, DRM, website construction maintenance, hosting and payment systems should be established. With the introduction of e-books, the whole production of process of books at Harrison-Keyes will definitely change and the knowledge and understanding of a production manager in the new situation should also be leveraged with the technology used in e-book production.

Another major problem of Harrison-Keyes has also something related to the stakeholders of the e-book supply chain, the authors. A well-known author who has been in the company for years has reservations and fear that his works are at risk of being pirated once becomes digitized. This issue has also put the company’s reputation in bad publicity. The company’s first step to address this problem is to convince the authors that there are existing technologies that will protect their works and prevent piracy. Again, this is another task of the CIO, to conduct researches on the development of new technologies such as encryption and Extensible Rights Markup Language, XrML, that will give protections to authors and the company and it should have been part of the project planning process even before the stakeholders were informed of the e-book project.  There are companies that provide software and Digital Rights Management, DRM, systems for the protection of e-books. The problem with Harrison-Keyes is its being not up to date with the latest in technology.

The management of Harrison-Keyes must also gives emphasis on the advantages of e-books on the part of the authors such as reaching a wider audience than by just publishing in print encouraging new readers by producing e-books in an attractive format; gaining status from the wider dissemination of their publications; and gaining revenue from e-book (JISC, 2003). In order for the project to be successful there should be an alignment of the stakeholders such as the publisher which includes its management, the authors, the suppliers and the outsourcing company. By understanding stakeholders’ issues and striving for solutions, a company can maintain support for its operations and expansion plans (Willis, 2005).

Due to the delay of the launching of the project, financial problems arise in Harrison-Keyes. Due to not well-anticipated project cost, the project needed a cost that is beyond the budget of the company. It seems that the CIO and the CFO of Harrison-Keyes has no good strategic planning team.  Another problem is that there is someone in the management who lacks good corporate ethics and links information outside the company that causes bad publicity.

Summarizing the problems of Harrison-Keyes, its problems include stakeholder misalignments, organizational structure and lack of good information technology system. Generally, Harrison-Keyes has good strategy but its strategy planning and implementation are hindered by many factors such as having the wrong person at a certain position due to lack of appropriate skills and stakeholders misalignment. Most multinational companies undergo reorganization especially when implementing a new project or strategy that will significantly change the company in order to meet new challenges. Basically, the challenges face by the company is to have a certain level of competence in the e-book publishing.

Considering the scenario on Harrison-Keyes, strategy planning and its relationship with the entire organization and the stakeholders should be taken into consideration.

Organizational structure and strategy are essential elements in the formula of sustainable business performance. Sound organizational structure usually means a certain mix and interaction of talented individuals, working in relevant functions and areas of responsibility, sharing knowledge and related assets, behaving responsively and constructively (Wolfe, 2003). When a structure’s elements are properly aligned with one another, that structure facilitates effective implementation of the firm’s strategies (Barth, 2003). Thus, organizational structure is a critical component of effective strategy implementation processes (Barkerna et al., 2002).

Effective organizational structure provides the stability of the firm to successfully implement its strategies and maintain its current competitive advantages that will be needed for its future strategies (Ireland et al., 2003). A firm’s structure specifies the work to be done and how to do it, given the firm’s strategy or strategies (Jenster & Hussey, 1997). Thus organizational structure influences how managers work and the decisions resulting from that work (Schilling et al, 2001).

Selection of new strategy calls for changes to an organizational structure especially when inefficiencies force it to do so. (Chandler, 1962). Some top-level managers hesitate to conclude that there are problems with the firm’s structure or strategy. Because of these inertial tendencies, structural change is often induced by the actions of stakeholders who are no longer willing to tolerate the firm’s performance.

Harrison-Keyes exhibits a functional type of organizational structure. Functional structure is a structure consisting of a chief executive officer, CEO, and a limited corporate staff with functional line managers in dominant organizational areas such as production, accounting, marketing, research and development, engineering and human resources. This structure allows for functional specialization, thereby facilitating active sharing of knowledge within each functional area. The negative effect of a functional orientation like this is on communication and coordination among those representing different organizational functions. Because of this, the CEO must work hard to verify that the decisions and actions of individual business functions promote the entire firm rather than a single function.

Analyzing Harrison-Keyes’ organizational structure, the new CEO is highly driven by technology while it CFO is not conformed to the new strategy. The company has roster of talents with its executive vice president who has knowledge in global strategy; with its vice president for marketing which is said to be creative; and with its head of the implementation team who seeks for promotion and seems to exert effort to get his promotion.

On the other hand, the company seems to be not ready with the implementation of e-books due to its current CIO who lacks understanding of new technologies and interpretation on how these technologies can be applied to the advantage of the business; financial background to properly set IT investment priorities to achieve business goals; knowledge management and knowledge creation.

The e-book publishing strategy is greatly dependent on new technology so the company needs a reliable CIO that can effectively develop, implement and align information technology strategy of the company with the implementation of e-book publishing. The CIOs of today plays key roles in strategic planning due to the driving force of technology and information.   

The company’s production manager although has years of experience in publishing, e-book publishing is entirely different to traditional publishing and therefore should also has to be replaced by someone more knowledgeable of e-books production and process or the company can add another production manager that will be assigned solely on the implementation of e-books.

            The main reason behind Harrison-Keyes implementation of e-book publishing is to maintain long-term competitive success which is kind of international strategy. International strategies also allow the firm to search for new markets, resources, core competencies, and technologies as part of its effort to outperform competitors (Begley et al, 2003). Therefore, an effective organizational structure is necessary for its implementation. Global operations such as e-book publishing need proper matching of strategies and organizational structure for coordination and control.

A strategy designed to achieve growth will be ineffective without the appropriate organization of a company’s talent and resources. As a company grows or implements a strategy that causes change to the company, it has to evolve its organizational structure to ensure optimal performance and to deal with changing priorities and business complexity. However, reorganization is a high-risk activity that represents a shock to the corporation, is personal to employees and can result in an erosion of performance. To address the risks associated with reorganization, companies need to be aware of key success factors when implementing reorganization initiatives and to initiate systematic communications plan to influence perceptions ay all levels and stakeholders within the organization (Goold and Campbell, 2002).

            Having the right people in place allows a company to face changes and growth. Management needs to attract right people, train them properly if necessary and position them at the right position that can help the company pursue its purpose and meets the reasonable expectations of stakeholders.

Why Use SEO Services to Promote Your Long Island Company?

by adam @ White Dove Bird

Search Engine Optimization, or SEO for short, is the process of affecting how visible your website is in a search engine. SEO is not the same thing as “paid” search engine advertising, because it is concerned with the “organic” or “natural” search results that people are looking for. SEO services exist to make sure that a website will appear in a search engine more frequently, and to ensure that a website is getting more visitors from search engine users.   SEO services are especially important for Long Island companies, because there are many local business competing for search engine relevance. SEO can be used to guarantee that your company is one of the first results that appears when users search specific keywords. For example, somebody may search “Long Island Weddings”, if they are looking for a local wedding service. If you are a wedding venue or a catering hall, you’re probably going to want your company to appear as high on that search list as possible. This is where SEO services come in! Here’s how SEO works – your websites and webpages are analyzed by SEO professionals, and they come up with solutions that will ensure that they are picked up by search engines, so your website comes up first. Search engine services like Google are not people – they are robots and algorithms that are designed to compile information, which is especially difficult on a local level. This is why SEO services are so great! – SEO people are real people that can translate your company’s services to be advertised towards fellow Long Island customers.

Facebook, Uber, Evans Cycles: Everything that matters this morning

by Marketing Week Reporters @ Marketing Week

Our round-up of all the marketing news this morning.

The post Facebook, Uber, Evans Cycles: Everything that matters this morning appeared first on Marketing Week.

The Aim of Fashion Photography

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics


It is by the nature of people to be fascinated with the beauty they see around – may it be natural or inanimate. Though many people believe in the cliché “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, the universality of expression when it comes to beauty as a whole is uncontested. People will always rely on their personal judgment when it comes to defining and appreciating real beauty on its sense. This paper aims to discuss the extent of attractive presentation used in fashion photography to stimulate desire among individuals who see it. It will justify desire stimulation as an aim of fashion photography by presenting examples.

            Fashion photography is a specialty aspect of photography that caters to the artistic exposition of clothing and other fashion pieces. It is believed that fashion photography mastered its individual aesthetic characteristics in which the clothes and other fashions are taken into considerable angle and out of the extraordinary locations. “Fashion photography is traditionally regarded as the lightweight end of photographic practice. Its close relationship to the economic imperatives of turnover makes the fashion photograph the transitory image par excellence.” As a primarily recognized fact, fashion photography is directed not only to artistic representation of clothes and fashion materials but also to the aim of persuading people and spectators to try, buy or purchase such products being endorsed and even the personality present as a subject in the photo itself.

Further, picture editor of The Guardian, affirmed in such related description that “fashion photography is like its models, nobody wants it for very long.”  believes that fashion photography is dynamic. The feeling of likeness the photograph brings in the eyes pf people who sees it changes. Thus, the relativity and duration of its effect is temporary. However, this belief was challenged that there are significant differences between how actual garments and representations of them are both produced and consumed. Since people originally wear clothing or fashion on our bodies, the description provided by Cabe is said to be “reductive” or oversimplifying. The aspect of personal differences and individual characteristics in terms of physical traits and the appropriateness of such fashion items to people are overlooked.

Fashion photography is always a dynamic area of photography since it caters to a specified and more business-oriented side. The art presented by most ordinary photographers and visual artists is a bit diverse when compared to such kind of photography. However, the main aim in capturing the subject in the best and most artistic manner is the common denominator of every photographer who held their camera and focused their lenses.




Photographers, in general, aim to project the “art” out of the subject. Pierre Bourdieu suggests that the invention of photography, far from setting its own standards for realism, merely fell into line with the dominant ideology laid down by painting. He added that photographs themselves try to depict an ape in a painterly style. In fashion photography, the look of the subject as well as the fashion being endorsed is the main concern of the artist. The most often media where the art of fashion photography is showcased is advertising and print (such as magazines and newspapers). Today, it is too evident in the daily encounters of people in various publications to see photographs adorn with strong color presentation, extraordinary themes, effects and bizarre images. Almost all glossy magazines distributed to the market are full of images that bear a specific message. On this case, fashion photography as presented in fashion oriented magazines and other publications will serve its own purpose: to persuade, stimulate and elicit desire among the readers and lookers.

Indeed, fashion photography persuades people by the visual beauty being presented but at the same time separate them to the reality of the ordinary purpose of clothing. With such representations, people no longer stick to the idea of clothes as a basic need for practical considerations such as protection, modesty, and adornment. Instead, it gives them the opportunity to ponder on the symbolism of fashion. Thus, the magazine as the principal outlet for photographic exposition as well as a prime motivator in helping individuals to assess the meaning of clothing, determining what is “in” and what is “out”, must serve its real objective. But more often than not, with the superficiality of images, use of strong visual elements, and surreal characters, people are subjected into fashion dilemma.

It is a common notion by many historians and critics that the fashion magazine and the fashion photograph is an ephemeral and exiguous form of cultural production. It is a potential medium of transferring cultural characteristics of people with diverse origins. For example, in the anthology Beyond Desire, several portraits in fashion were showcased including the works of Christian Dior and John Galliano, fashion photos, African studio photography, art, and documentary stills that holds the relativity of people when it comes to fashion sense. The collection of essay about the “idea” of Africa and Europe fashion is used as a useful medium to establish social relationships, local institutions, and transnational connection”. In here, “fashion creates fantasy onto which qualities such as seduction, eroticism, exuberance – and desire – are projected”. The book provides a comparative analysis of “the random mixing of ethnic and contemporary elements” that makes the fundamental result both “strange and beautiful”.

Fashion photography is not as simple as having a catalogue in which people can see what is new in the fashion industry. It is not also necessary that it should be a way for people such as the fashion shoppers in big commercial trading, to know what and how clothes may or really look like. In reality, the photographic presentation of fashion has something to do with the process or the act of capturing the moment and the subject. For fashion, there are several considerations to be taken into account. Aside from the items and the models to be used, among these considerations are “the catwalk, designer’s studio and changing room perform this function, affording the opportunity for scrutinising garments on bodies in movement, or for trying them on, while simultaneously enhancing their appeal with atmospheric music and lighting”.

Certainly, photos about fashion create an image of blissful and “beautiful” in the ordinary eyes of the viewer. It increases or even enhances the actual look of the item. Fashion photography offers an illustration of clothing that does not offer exactly the equivalent point of identification as it was demonstrated on the stage, or displayed on a mannequin or model in the studio. Relatively, almost all images in fashion photography designate people into a world of unconcealed illusions and fantasies. It places fashion and the body in any number of rational contexts. More often, the sessions in fashion photography is far from the reality of imagery. It has either little or nothing to do with clothing. Or even clothing itself seems to become an alibi for the representation of other contemporaneous issues and ideas.


The Issue of Digital Photography: Visual Truth in Fashion


            With the advent of high technology in all segments of living, the process of fashion photography nowadays is also sophisticated. The presence of digital photography is another consideration to be taken into its revolutionary course of change. Researches find that digital photography has become immensely popular among recreational photographers and professionals alike while the benefits are multitudinous. The most pronounced benefits are the ease of reproduction and the effortless manipulation digital photography allows for exact replicas of images that can be made instantly and sent out where they have the potential to reach and affect millions of individuals. Furthermore, photo editing software allows for the manipulation of images, where any element can be altered, added or extracted but in doing so, the computer has followed the law of unintended consequences: the box that came to be seen as the conclusive media machine has made conclusions themselves more difficult to reach. The status of photos as visual truth has been severely shaken by this digitization of photography.

The debate over the level of visual truth in photography has only been heightened with the arrival of digital imaging. Visual truth is the notion that a photograph has the power to project images of the truth and can be seen as an unmediated copy of reality. While this view is extreme, traditional photographs do indeed all have a referent in the real world something of which they mimic and are reflections of. While simply digitizing a photo does not change that, when photographs are altered through the use of a digital technology, they lose this referent and can present a distorted view of reality. This thought is unsettling for some, as determining the authenticity of a photograph is nearly impossible. This can allow for people to create completely fictitious events and execute elaborate hoaxes.         

Believes that the expression of an attitude such as this in fashion photography bears witness to the fact that it can both make a profound impact on the social and cultural scene, and have the potential to make a lasting rather than fleeting impression on the consciousness of any individual. The deceiving tactics in order to persuade or stimulate the desire of viewers and more importantly buyers in the subject presented is evident in every images shown and products endorsed.

Comparing fashion photography into a more crucial aspect of photography – photojournalism, it is essential that journalistic photographs remain unaltered because this is the reason why they are effective. They are meant to capture real moments in time – presented as they happened and unchanged,  to change any detail in any of these photographs diminishes their power and turns them into lies. They would no longer be what the photographer saw but what someone else wanted the scene to be. While there is no question that digitization is the future of photography and journalism, the photos must remain completely unaltered if journalism intends to maintain any creditability. In fashion photography, with the presence of highly advance mechanisms operating in the industry, the manipulation and enhancements of real images into more attractive and fantastic is recommended. This is directed to the need of the distributor of such fashion item (or even the models) to earn profits.

While an unaltered traditional photo in journalistic function maintains its referent, it is still subject to the photographer’s personal biases. So the question remains, can a photograph ever portray absolute visual truth? The fact is that “the creation of an image through a camera lens always involves some degree of subjective choice through the selection, framing and personalization”. In fashion photography, the photographers already have a subject and will no longer choose what to photograph and can often take an image out of context. The traditional photograph does not hold any more visual truth than a digitally manipulated image would. This changes the context and eliminates any evidence of visual truth that this photograph may have held. This is no different than a digitally altered image as both have been distorted to the point where they do not depict reality accurately both images are edited, only at different stages of production. This is applicable to fashion photography as a whole.

Often, photographs are not meant to be strictly a depiction of reality, but instead to be art and evoke an emotion from its viewer. Thus, digital manipulation simply becomes another tool for the artist which allows them to convey meanings that would be otherwise impossible. One must not forget that the interpretation of a picture takes place in one’s heads. The meaning of what people see is never what they see but what it means to them. Pictures are not to concretize reality, but to interpret.


Although the digitization of photography is an unavoidable evolution, it is important to understand that digitization does not necessarily include alteration. Digitization is an astounding advancement that will allow for endless and rapid distribution of photography worldwide especially to the fashion and even advertising industries. As tempting as digital manipulation may be, it is crucial that fashion photography maintains its integrity and continues to display unaltered photographs. Even in an unaltered state, however, photography will always be a subjective art, void of any absolute visual truth. It is digitization though, that allows for a new level of image that can be made to fulfill any desire. According to sources, it is said that the world becomes more controllable and we become more capable of projecting and confirming ourselves and our own world and in our own image as well provided that these digitally altered images are not labeled as authentic, one should be able to appreciate and accept this reconstructed version of photography.

There has been a general argument that the diverse and complex array of images people encounter in their everyday lives, from paintings to news images to digital representations, are subject to the dynamics of social power and ideology, and that images acquire meaning and value according to context and use.

Fashion photography aims not the excessively and overly visual presentation of images but to the artistic and realistic way that will induce the desire of people who loves fashion and the art of photography as a whole. As Jennifer Craik in The face of Fashion deemed, “fashion photography provokes viewers and consumers into confirming their own identity through structures of desire … constituting a nexus between fashion and selfhood” .

In my own opinion, fashion photography must not be overly interpreted. The images should be attributed from the standpoint of a lens creative and technical capabilities such as angle view, zooming, depth of field, perspective, aperture control, contrast or tonal and color reproductions. The element of visual truth is the most important aim that fashion photographers must meet. Thus, the presentation of images and subjects is not beyond the limits of real characteristics of fashion items, clothes, and models in the picture. The extent of fashion photography is limited to the execution and presentation of what is true and artistic in the eyes of every individual. Balancing artistry and honesty when it comes to stimulating desires of people is another vital denominator. Thus, people can observe fashion photography play with their own desires and fears and appreciate how the rational images appears without the main influences of “attractive presentation using colours, exotic themes, lighting effects and phantasmagoria of abundance” but with the idea that fashion is relative and that everyone is exceptional in the eyes of one another.

Mark Ritson: Google’s lack of transparency should have us all worried

by Mark Ritson @ Marketing Week

Google's corporate mission that suggests openness and transparency is at direct odds with its actions.

The post Mark Ritson: Google’s lack of transparency should have us all worried appeared first on Marketing Week.

Innovation must create an original and special relationship by being closer to the women

by aufeminin @ Womenology

Meet Dr. Marcel Saucet, Marketing, associate professor and researcher at the University of San Diego. He heads laboratory, expert advice in marketing innovation. What do you think are the most promising innovations aimed at women sectors? Cosmetics: During the …

Continuer la lecture

The post Innovation must create an original and special relationship by being closer to the women appeared first on Womenology.

Does Multicultural Still Matter? Branding Roundtable No. 33

by Chuck Kent @ Brandingmag

What happens in branding when the world backs away from what brand marketers once embraced (or claimed to embrace) almost as a given: the inclusion of and appeal to multiple ethnicities, lifestyles, and nationalities? Specifically, what is happening now, given the Western world’s political and societal retreat from multiculturalism to “me-first-ism” (witness Brexit, the Trump […]

Recent Recruitment Trend In Automobile Industries

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

The Recruitment in Automobile Industries

            The employment had a full impact of the automobile industry. The automobile industry as one of the largest industry and jobs dependent on the industry are included, the auto industry is responsible for employment contribution in a country. The contribution of the automobile industry generated a sale while producing the new light vehicles.  

The job creation depends on the specialization of the one who’s going to perform the task.  In the automakers’ side wherein the largest purchasers of aluminum, copper, iron, lead, plastics, rubber, textiles, vinyl, and steels. The output of the automotive industry produces a higher level of output than any other single industry. The auto industry invested in further research and development, higher than any other manufacturing industry. For further results, the exportation of the automobiles is visibly increasing every year.

Employment Levels in the Automobile Industry

It is important in employment as goes to the establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing or assembling complete passenger automobiles, trucks, commercial cars and buses, and special purpose motor vehicles which are for highway use. However, when one considers the employment levels in such areas as motor vehicles parts and supplies, automotive dealers and service stations, auto repair and services, the overall impact is more significant.

The employment levels account for only those employed in the manufacturing and assembling of motor vehicles, a number of additional industry categories contribute to the overall employment levels in the country. The automobile industry also engages in manufacturing motor vehicle parts and accessories.

After months of aggressive recruiting, the person needed for polishing the works must pass the qualifications and job descriptions. Job specifications usually evolve in the points were there is a makes, maintain, and repairs concept. It is something to do with the employee that can fits, assembles, installs, repairs and maintains plant and machinery and makes replacement parts when required. And eventually sets up and operates machine tools to produce components according to specifications.

The Skills Needed:

            Every employee hired is aware of what the things they specializes are.

Job Specification Electronic Industry Training Centre

1.      Select, set up and operate all common machine tools used for tool/mould and die manufacture.

2.      Undertake proper marking out on tool/mould and die parts.

3.      Read and interpret engineering drawings and specifications.

4.      Use and care for hand tools and maintain machine tools.

5.      Carry out all necessary safety precautions and fit to specified tolerances.

6.      Perform soldering, brazing and welding.

7.      Make, maintain and repair press tools, special cutting tools, dies, gauges and jigs and fixtures in accordance with drawings and other specifications.

8.      Use and care for standards and precision measuring instruments and devices.

9.      Identify and select materials in accordance with specifications.

10.  Perform heat treatment of metals to give specified properties, select and sharpen cutting tools.

11.  Select and use correct speeds, feeds, lubricants and coolants for efficient machining.

12.  Produce required surface finishes on metals.

13.  Analyze and rectify mould failures.

14.  Identify common engineering materials and use correct tool cutting angles, speeds and lubricants for their machining.

15.  Perform heat treatment of metals and perform simple mould design.

Aside from the manual skills, the employee should also be knowledgeable with the use of equipment and machineries.

1.      Install plant and machinery.

2.      Carry out preventive maintenance programs.

3.      Diagnose faults, repair or replace defective parts in plant and machinery, and keep records of such repairs or replacements.

4.      Use and care for measuring instruments and standards.

5.      Undertake proper marking out on work pieces and can fit to specified tolerances.

6.      Carry out simple sheet metal work such as cutting, bending, folding, rolling and seaming.

7.      Perform arc and gas welding, soldering and brazing.

8.      Perform heat treatment of metals to give specified properties.

9.      Carry out simple pipe work such as bending, threading and jointing.

10.  Read and interpret engineering drawings and specifications.

11.  Use and care for hand and machine tools.

12.  Carry out all necessary safety precautions.

13.  Set up and operate common machine tools

14.  Use and care for measuring instruments and standards.

15.  Identify and select materials in accordance with specifications.

16.  Select and sharpen cutting tools.

17.  Select and use correct speeds, feeds, lubricants and coolants for efficient machining.

The hired employee should also require going beyond the process of training and thorough assessment of the employees’ skills. The successful completion of the labor requirement will be organized on a craft apprenticeship with attendance in a technical institution of the automobile company.

At the end of initial training period, apprentices will start work on the continuing studies on a day-to-day basis, with the opportunity to complete a foundation degree. The candidates must have, or expect to gain. The need to develop sustainable vehicles is really driving the business to have a bright, forward-thinking trade’s people to progress in very important projects.

The luxury carmakers needed bulk of the recruits to engineer to develop a new generation for the vehicles. There are number of vacancies that created to work on new technology and product development programs.


            The need for another batch of labor force can definitely bring an economic rise on the country. The recruitment for the automobile industry is very unpredictable because there is a new innovation still on work to meet the clients’ desires.

            Different kinds of car that are almost expensive are out in the market but the demand on purchasing only slows down but never experienced zeros. Therefore, the on-going recruitment and training is present in the company’s perspective.


CanagaRetna, S., (2003). The Drive to Move South. A Special Series Report: The Growing Role of the Automobile Industry in Southern Legislative Economies. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 03 Sept 2009].

Cranage, J., (2008). JLR to Recruit Hundreds of New Engineers for Eco-Jags; JAGUAR LAND-ROVER. The Birmingham Post, p. 1.

Hutson, A., (2008). Jaguar Land Rover Looks to the Future; RECRUITMENT: Around 60 Advanced Apprenticeships on Offer for Enthusiastic Youngsters. Coventry Evening Telegraph, p. 20.

Amazon reveals how it thinks about advertising

by Sarah Vizard @ Marketing Week

The retail giant is rapidly building out its ad business but says marketers should think of it as a way to add value to the customer, not just as a sales tool.

The post Amazon reveals how it thinks about advertising appeared first on Marketing Week.

3 Things We’ve Learned about Marketing Your Educational Institution

by Schneider Associates @ Schneider Associates

Profiting off of your education program takes more than an, “if you build it, they will come” mentality. Marketers in higher education need to answer these essential questions for students: What will they get, why should they get it, and how much will it cost? At SA, we drive enrollment for an array of education-based clients, and we have learned […]

The post 3 Things We’ve Learned about Marketing Your Educational Institution appeared first on Schneider Associates.

Critical Race Analysis: Mountain Dew’s Overt Racism

by lnf239 @ Media and Cultural Analysis, Spring 2014

Comedy is often used as an excuse for inappropriate behavior and characters. The genre is often exempt from receiving criticism for stereotypes that are employed in movies. Such as Rush Hour 2, which is examined by Ji Hoon Park, Nadine G. Gabbadon & Ariel R. Chernin, and they found people weren’t offended because it was […]

The Best of Global Digital Marketing in Manila, The Philippines

by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

21st July 2016 In cooperation with Adobo Magazine  

Aviva campaign designed to ‘make Britain’s roads safer’ banned for promoting dangerous driving

by Thomas Hobbs @ Marketing Week

Both Aviva and Renault have been hit with bans after the ASA ruled that both had glamourised dangerous driving with "irresponsible" advertising campaigns.

The post Aviva campaign designed to ‘make Britain’s roads safer’ banned for promoting dangerous driving appeared first on Marketing Week.

Deliciously Ella on her ‘unusual’ approach to marketing

by Michael Barnett @ Marketing Week

Food writer and entrepreneur Ella Mills started Deliciously Ella back in 2012, and it has since grown into a multimillion pound brand. Here she shares the secrets to her success and the role marketing has played.

The post Deliciously Ella on her ‘unusual’ approach to marketing appeared first on Marketing Week.

Racism in Dove

by fashionista 04 @ Media and Cultural Analysis, Spring 2014

    The silhouette of the namesake bird. People all around the world recognize this logo without batting an eyelid: but in case you are not familiar with it, it’s Dove. Fifty years ago it was just a beauty bar that offered a new formula for cleansing creams, but today it is a “global masterbrand” […]

Almost three in four global marketers still unaware of full GDPR implications

by Sarah Vizard @ Marketing Week

The new European data laws are set to come into effect in just nine months time but one in four marketers are still only in the planning stage of ensuring compliance.

The post Almost three in four global marketers still unaware of full GDPR implications appeared first on Marketing Week.

Morrisons on how staff are inspiring both its marketing and turnaround

by Thomas Hobbs @ Marketing Week

Morrisons' top marketer discusses the brand's ongoing turnaround, the Amazon deal and his expectations for Christmas.

The post Morrisons on how staff are inspiring both its marketing and turnaround appeared first on Marketing Week.

Using SEO as a Competitive Marketing Strategy on Long Island

by adam @ White Dove Bird

Local businesses are always competing with new and unique marketing strategies. This couldn’t be more true for Long Island businesses. Today, SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is one of the most important internet marketing strategies, as it directly impacts the amount of visitors a company’s website will receive. And of course, more visitors means more potential buyers.   On Long Island, customers know exactly what they’re looking for. When they go to sites like Google or Bing to search for local services, you want to ensure that your business will be one of the first search results to appear. This is what SEO marketing is all about – to make sure your website is as relevant towards customers as possible. What is special about SEO is that it is an “organic” form of marketing – your web traffic is not being increased through spamming or buying ad placement. It is instead, a method of marketing based upon taking into consideration how the search engines actually work, and using them to the advantage of your business. The process of SEO isn’t necessarily only concerned with marketing towards the highest possible number of people, but is also concerned with getting the highest conversion of sales and leads possible.

Product Launch Analysis: Dove for Men's Marketing Camapign

Product Launch Analysis: Dove for Men's Marketing Camapign

Schneider Associates

  Unilever’s Dove has always geared its products toward women, but theSunday Super Bowl ad revealed a new play call. Dove has recently launched a line for men: Men+Care, which will include three body washes, two bar soaps and a scrubber. The Dove Men+Care will be Unilever’s biggest brand launch this year. The Dove Men+Care campaign aims to celebrate real …

Dove needs to refocus on honesty, not rely on 'stunts'

Dove needs to refocus on honesty, not rely on 'stunts'

Campaign Asia

Dove is losing sight of its strengths following a string of attention-seeking ads this year, industry leaders have warned.

Dove: The Most Impressive Brand Builder | Aaker on Brands

Dove: The Most Impressive Brand Builder | Aaker on Brands

Prophet Thinking

Dove has grown tremendously in an intensively competitive arena with established competitors largely through their brand building efforts. Learn more.

CanOWater on its hopes to take canned water mainstream

by Leonie Roderick @ Marketing Week

The water brand is hoping to solve the world’s plastic problem by 'building a cult of people' who will encourage others to switch from bottles to aluminium cans.

The post CanOWater on its hopes to take canned water mainstream appeared first on Marketing Week.

Launch of the Week: Eastern Washington University + Microsoft

by Schneider Associates @ Schneider Associates

Microsoft has long offered their Microsoft Professional Program courses to the public, but for the first time ever the certificate courses are being integrated into an accredited college curriculum to better prepare the next generation of data analysts and draw future analysts to the school. Read more about the program launch: Launch of the Week: Eastern Washington University from Laura […]

The post Launch of the Week: Eastern Washington University + Microsoft appeared first on Schneider Associates.

Commentaires sur Gender Marketing Encounters: Marti Barletta par Colleen Faheu

by Colleen Faheu @ Commentaires pour Womenology

Hi, Marti, I always learn something from your work. This time it's not about women but about Canada! I've experience that underscores your view that "...Canada is a more forward-thinking market than the US. Big companies like Unilever, P&G, or Ford often view the Canadian market as a good place to try new thinking." As I'm doing missionary work to establish the discipline of Audio Branding in North America, I knock on a lot of doors. Canadian marketers, however, find me and reach out to me." Hah! I think I'll make more trips to Toronto. Cheers, Colleen


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics





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Renda’s Haiti: Beyon Paternalism

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics


Taking Haiti: A Review


This paper is a summary of the book entitled ‘Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S Imperialism, 1915-1940’ by . It provides the basic themes of the book which is centered on paternalism and racism. Also, a comparison with other books was provided for in this paper




The invasion of Haiti by the United States in July 1915 had led to a nineteen years of military occupation. During the stay of marines in Haiti, a puppet president was installed and a new constitution was forced favoring foreign investments. U.S officials are able to take control of the Haitian finances with the help of the marines. A war against the insurgents called Caco was raged the marines during their stay in Haiti. For several years, these insurgents have maintained armed resistance which engendered violent Haitian resistance. With the occupation, the Haitian military was reorganized and strengthened. The occupation was supposed to carry out specific tasks that will bring about political stability in Haiti but as well as to secure control over the Haiti. Specific gains for Haiti were proposed especially by those who supported the occupation. Indeed, the economic development and the new Haitian democracy were sought by the U.S policy makers. Initially, the U. S military has gained support from the Haitian elite while other Haitians were suspicious of the foreign powers and of government. The Haitians indeed have shown everyday resistance with the Cacos mounting their own rebellion (, 2001)

The military occupation of Haiti that started in 1915 was argued to be a no sideshow in this book. More so, the occupation was one of the important arenas overseas imperial ventures has remade the United States. Places around the globe such as Puerto Rico, Cuba, Nicaragua, China, Philippines and others were effected by the transformation of imperialism. Imperial control and influence are built through foreign interventions and the occupation of territories. Both form the solid foundations for the US new cultural departures. Haitians like other who were the focus of imperial factors has interacted with US citizens which contribute to the matrix of the U.S imperial culture.

The primary cultural mechanism conscripted the soldiers to carry out US rule in Haiti is the paternalist discourse. The marines are infused with the paternalist discourse with the viewpoint that the Haitians were wards and that their undertaking was to make a rich and a productive property for them. Paternalism is an important element of the U.S foreign policy. It is not merely a justification to the wrongdoing of the Americans but a collection of meanings, ideas and values that shaped the relations of the former European colonial possessions with the U.S. Indeed, it is a metaphor of a father’s relationship tom his children in which authority, superiority and control are asserted. More so, it is a form of domination and power disguised as benevolent by referring it with paternal care and guidance. Hence, paternalism is among the cultural vehicle for violence.

Diverse implications on the issue of race, class, gender and sexuality are associated with the cultural framework of the U.S soldiers as father figures in Haiti. Moreover, another discourse operating in the occupation is the issue of racism and racial awareness that competed with the attention of the marines. Countless cultural realities have confronted that U.S upon their arrival in the Haitian soil. Historical discourses of the Haiti have provided alternative interpretations of its relations to the United States. Cultural resources that became the basis for communicating the understanding of race, gender and Americanness was offered by the Haiti to the marines (, 2001).

            By occupation, Americans are engaged as participants and supporters of the U.S Empire. The United States have encouraged marines and other supporters to see themselves as helping out a needy child through paternalist representations. An imperial perspective is thus adopted by Americans with the popular and unofficial discourses fueling the fascination with Haiti. The imperial consciousness was to a greater extent fostered and met with success. Images of Haiti, Cuba, Mexico, Polynesia, China, Africa, Arabia were brought with the imperial imaginations of the Americans. The acceptance of Pear Harbor as part of the America in December 1941 was an indication of the embrace of imperialism among the citizens of the United States. Haitian and Haitian culture narratives that has taken place in the literature of empire has indeed helped in the production of that reality.

            Moreover, the national identity of the country was questioned with the broadening control and influence. Whether the American culture could remain wholly separate and unaffected by foreign culture was quesitoned. The problem of the empire lies on the ingestion of the territory without allowing it to become evidently part of the nation or the nation’s culture. The nation was also troubled with the implications of paternalism in other ways. African Americans with their paternalist discourses challenged the whiteness of the American identity and demanded for rights and respect. Paternalist discourses on Haiti as viewed by White Americans will lead to the weakening of hostilities and stronger forms of racism whilst the emergence of new types of racism (, 2001).

            Ultimately, the occupation of Haiti was not a simple form of cultural event. Strategy, economics and politics are matters that are associated with the occupation. More so, the institutional growth and the development of the U.S government have to do a lot with it. The emergence of the international economy has shaped the ambitions of the policy makers of the US government.


Critical Analysis


The foundation of the U.S military and its political actions is explored in this book. It illustrates how American intellectuals are affected by the occupation of Haiti.  The invasion of Haiti by the United States in July 1915 gave rise to the nineteen years of occupation and the fascination of Americans with Haiti. Fundamentally, paternalism was the central theme of the involvement of the US in Haiti. Paternalism and racism were manifested with the economic and military support for the grounds of occupations. Haitians were regarded as inferior people who are in need of the protection for white men. Such protection led to violence since the Haitian’s uprisings were suppressed by U.S marines. The cultural baggage of paternalism was carried by statesmen, diplomats and soldiers who were involved in the invasion and the occupation of Haiti. The universal idea which resulted form this was the duty of Americans as occupiers to act as parent to the native Haitians. This encompasses the duty to bring the benefits of order, stability, secure commerce and modern rational customs as regarded by the Americans. Paternalism as noted by the author was ’the cultural flagship of the United States in Haiti’.

Soldiers have tried to shape the culture of Haiti in their own image and culture through coercive means though the attempts have failed because of the Haitians resistance. The racism of American soldiers led to the perception of Haitians as ignorant children that are unworthy of ruling themselves. Seeing them as such, the marines have come to imagine themselves to act in protective and disciplinary motivations. Moreover, the occupations on the Haiti have articulated an effect on the US citizens. The author argued that the military intervention has remade U.S and that imperialism can intervene with domestic cultural politics. She identified the cultural fabric of the Haitian occupation with the racial, sexual and gender apparatus that is associated with the marines.

            The occupation of Haiti has impacted the United States in terms of understanding the imperialist actions of the country around the globe. It has been presented in the book that the Haiti’s occupation was a transformation of the role of U. S in the world as well as the beliefs of Americans toward themselves. Also, the book illustrates the impact of the occupation which transformed Haiti in ways intended by the U. S policy makers.

            In the book, ‘A date which will Live; Pearl Harbor in American Memory’, the author argued that Americans have discussed foreign policy in the way that it is a metaphor to Pearl Harbor. It is discussed in the said book that the memories of the event have led to different lessons. The attack was described by then President Franklin Roosevelt as ‘a date which will live infamy’ has been embedded in the memory of the Americans. The infamy implies the innocence of the United States and the deceitful act of the Japanese military. The event has reinforced the policy of containment in the nation and the guarding against possible or future treachery through a strong military. However, Rosenberg pointed out that the same meaning was not shared by all Americans. The intelligence network was blamed to justify why the America was caught unaware.

The aftermath of the attack led to racist antagonism against the Japanese which gave rise to restrictive immigration laws (, 2005). The story of Pearl Harbor as illustrated by the author, played an important role in the shaping the images of the Japanese as treacherous enemies or powerful trading partners and giants.

            Ultimately, the book brings into understanding the memories surrounding the defining moment of the American history during the attack at the Pearl Harbor and how such memories led to the interpretation of another infamous attack. History and memory are mingled that provide an understanding of the past events. These events in turn bring different messages and serve as icons marking the turning point of the country’s history.

Both authors have discussed the issue of racism of Americans. Taking Haiti by  was rather focused on the paternalism. She provided a strong point of the paternalism that coincides with the occupation of the Haiti. She has clearly illustrated that the Americans have indeed taken the concept of paternalism simply by supporting the occupation. Their fascination with Haiti led to the imperial perspective adopted by the American themselves. However, the motives behind the occupation reflect more than that of a paternalistic intent. Also, the book reflects the role of power and the need for strategies for the emerging international economy as the driving factor behind the occupation.

Moreover, the cultures of paternalism have brought the imperial imaginations of the Americans towards other countries. The transformation of the Haiti as manifested in the book impacted the Americans perception towards themselves. Also it illustrates the transformation of the role of the United States among countries in the world. With regard to Rosenberg’s book, the infamy brought about by the Pearl Harbor attack has brought different lessons to the country. She also illustrated the racism which has emerged following the attack against the Japanese. Ultimately, these books provide an understanding of the historical events which has shaped the role of United States in other countries and its foreign relations.




Founder’s Profile: Robbi Anthony

by Firedove @ Firedove Technology

Robbi Anthony is the founder of Firedove. Robbi brings a background in web development, marketing, and technology to any project to make it a success. She uses her experience as a marketing director, start-up founder, and small business owner to make client projects successful, budget friendly, and high quality. Robbi’s has received numerous award for her entrepreneurial […]

The post Founder’s Profile: Robbi Anthony appeared first on Firedove Technology.

Dove: the perfect success story in advertising

by aufeminin @ Womenology

In 2004 Dove launched a ground breaking worldwide advertising campaign in the beauty industry. The brand created a new way to address their public which aimed to be “real” by getting rid of the complexes that beauty product consumers suffer from. …

Continuer la lecture

The post Dove: the perfect success story in advertising appeared first on Womenology.


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics



Decision making process is considered as the essential tool for keeping business organizations in its proper pacing in maintaining market success and increase in growth and stability as business managers must decide on better decision for the good of the company and that as a manager he need to use a set of framework in realizing his decisions and not to follow his gut feeling in times of critical situations that needs collaborative consideration from the management team and that he then needs to justify his interest in managerial decision making and focused on its distinct models and framework as it is the integral part of every business. Managers need to decide according to standards and principles being followed by the management and to respect its organization governance in which gut feeling approach is of no use because when managers make their decisions they should not be subjective in ways but objective and should adhere to the positive manner of the constructive approach of realizing the details of making decisions work effectively.







The analysis of         provided a basic framework for investigating the general process of individual decision making that it comprises a few discrete stages: (1) what is the problem? (2) What are the alternatives? (3) Which alternative is best? as with regards to managerial decision making, the text emphasizes that such stages play out in a set of steps ranging from initial detection of a problem to implementation and monitoring of a chosen solution. The individual’s decision-making style is his natural, habitual (albeit learned) approach to effecting a choice and then acting on that choice.  In particular, a substantial amount of research has been done to investigate the impact of personal values on outcomes of the decision-making process. For example, values have been related to differences in behaviors ranging from preference ratings for automobile attributes, to mass media usage, to occupational choice.







Henceforth,           described managers as having to mediate decisions in response to a wide variety of pressures, as well as often having to put together a coalition of inside and outside groups to survive using instruments that characterizes managers as “feelers” rather than “thinkers,” and as “intuitive” rather than “sensing”: These managers are more interested in people and feelings than in analysis and is always waiting to know more before deciding, holding off decisions and judgments. They are open and flexible, able to see and appreciate all sides of issues, welcoming new perspectives and information about issues. Although private managers might demonstrate value preferences different from those of different decision-making styles, our research proposition is that the relationships between their values and decision-making styles should obtain. There was a decision-making framework for business managers who want to build their brands in a corporate advertising environment. The framework raises several questions that brand managers need to address and be able to show how questions pertaining to consumer characteristics and brand tactics form the basis of a useful conceptual model. There needs to investigate whether brand managers consider consumers’ corporate ad knowledge and how they use it in their brand planning for learning about actual brand decision-making processes in a corporate advertising environment.




It was believe that the decision making framework will facilitate conceptually based research on the management of brands in the modern business environment and limiting the gut feeling approach to be done to develop a meaningful theory of organization knowledge that can guide the managers. Decision-making processes related to choice of market, timing and mode of entry are therefore important to understand from both a research and managerial perspective ( 1999).  Moreover, (1989) challenged several of the accepted principles of decision making, her research demonstrated that more successful companies in a better environment could analyze more relevant data, consider multiple alternatives simultaneously, and make faster decisions than their less successful competitors practicing slower decision-making processes in the same market. For example, the “comprehensive” perspective posited that, due to human cognitive limitations (, 1955) faster decisions could be made by limiting alternatives considered and by constraining analysis ( 1984;  1973;  1976). It was also generally accepted that centralized decision-making would speed the decision making process because conflict and consensus are more time-consuming than an autocratic process.




 (1989) stated that when decision makers immerse in real-time information, they acquire “a deep personal knowledge of the enterprise that allows them to access and interpret information rapidly when major decisions arise. The executives making fast decisions also use tactics to accelerate analysis of information and alternatives during the decision process (p. 570).       theory to faster decision making argues that two of the antecedent’s necessary for strategic decision speed are a two-tier advice process and consensus with qualification. Both of these antecedents call for a leadership type that inculcates others’ ideas and thoughts in the decision-making process. Therefore, decision-making theory requires a top management leadership that values participation of intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration, would allow a faster decision making process through       ‘s (1989) theory of decision making. Moreover, the business world has been able to adapt some of the thinking from the field management practice. Many concepts can be applied to how people interact and how to operate the business as one of the concept that plays a major role in decision is gut feel or intuition.






People generally agree that intuition refers to the brain’s process of interpreting and reaching conclusions about phenomena without resorting to conscious thought. Thus, the Boston Consulting Groups wrote “intuition is the subconscious integration of all experiences, conditioning, and knowledge of a lifetime including the cultural and emotional biases of that lifetime.” The debate raging in the business sector in the clinical world is whether you should trust your intuition in making decisions or ignore it because of its lack of critical analysis.        takes the view that intuition is extremely important and essential in decision making. He uses multiple examples of firefighters, intensive care nurses, marines and leaders who use their intuition to come to decisions in a rapid rammer because of their intuition skills. People have “gut feelings” when faced with making choices at work. For example, you may have evaluated a job candidate when your gut told you “something” seemed wrong because there is no way to quantify, these hunches you dismissed them as untrustworthy, only to discover later that your gut feeling was right all along.        demystifies the role intuition plays in the workplace and gives us permission to trust our instincts. He shows that gut feel, far from being an innate “sixth sense,” is an essential and learnable skill that anyone can use to improve job performance.




t is as important a tool in making a decision as interpreting numbers or analyzing data. Gut feeling or Intuition is an essential, powerful and practical tool.        discovered that the more experience people have in any particular field, the more they rely on gut feelings because it is a natural and direct outgrowth of experience. He defines gut feel/intuition as “the way people translate their experience into action.” In other words, people’s experience lets them recognize what is going on and make decisions. Most real-life decisions are simply not amenable to classic, analytical decision making as the experienced managers often make the mistake of assuming that their subordinates see the same patterns that are known to them. Then,        believes that a lot of us want to accept the transformative power of intuition as if it were magical. According to him, people want to believe in intuition but it unfortunately blinds us to the less romantic realities of business decision making. For every great example of a great “gut decision’’, there is an equal and opposite example of a terrible one.       refers to research studies of cognition that show a person’s thinking is subject to all sorts of biases and flaws, most of which operate at a subconscious level – the level of intuition.





The essence of business environment is to apply decision making structure in its process even if gut feeling in some ways can be good as indeed, the human drive to find decision patterns that will deal into the process of developing and shaping an appropriate organization structure amicably effective for modern business environment as the new decision support systems don’t eliminate human gut feel or intuition, as         asserts that people harness its power while remedying its most pernicious flaws. In fact, he believes computers will impose a left-brain discipline on right-brain hunches in a way that is well beyond the computational capacity of the human mind. He feels that gut feelings continues to play a key role, allowing people to make informed decisions without short-circuiting its power within the combination in a form of creative potential as it offers the true fulfillment of the promise of human intuition.









Therefore, I agree that managers should use set of framework that will give basis and support in terms of deciding on something integrating to the decision making process on the other hand, the gut feeling approach could be used by the modern business environment depending upon which the need may arise and it is a sort of case to case situation as the purpose of making better decisions is to provide business success in the global market by means of depicting the general nature of relative components along with its aspects within exclusive domains and believe that in order for an organization to be more successful there should be a fit within its decision-making processes and organization context along its top management team. Furthermore, business managers can use gut feeling approach in some ways of realizing the decision framework respectively. Finally, in referring to decision-making, certain scale can be developed to determine if the decision making framework process at the managerial level of needed information and if the decision-making process is essential for the structure of the business as it provides evidence and making such study in research an important basis for future research p.







Commentaires sur “Gender, Design and Marketing”, a book justifying marketing to women with biological arguments par Nathalie

by Nathalie @ Commentaires pour Womenology

Il faut en effet admettre qu’il y a des grandes différences hommes/femmes dans la consommation et celles-ci sont à prendre en compte. En revanche, quant à l’origine de ces différences, les théories se contredisent. Notamment cet article sur Gloria Moss qui justifie le marketing to women par des arguments biologiques vient totalement contredire votre autre article sur la neurobiologiste Lise Eliot et son essai «Cerveau rose, Cerveau bleu» qui affirme que ces différences découlent surtout de l’éducation différenciée entre filles et garçons.

Real Beauty? Measuring the Dove Marketing Program's Success

Real Beauty? Measuring the Dove Marketing Program's Success


More than 10 years after its debut, the Dove Real Beauty program remains a marketing icon and a source of controversy. What did it accomplish?

Robin Bonn: Don’t miss out as agencies finally toughen-up

by Robin Bonn @ Marketing Week

Smart agencies are taking responsibility; rethinking their lemming-like, pitch-for-anything behaviour. Marketers must press the reset button too, says Robin Bonn, founder of Co:definery.

The post Robin Bonn: Don’t miss out as agencies finally toughen-up appeared first on Marketing Week.

Facebook responds to growing ‘uneasiness’ over brand safety with new ad controls

by Sarah Vizard @ Marketing Week

The social network is introducing new eligibility standards for publishers and creators that will lay out more clearly the type of content that can be monetised.

The post Facebook responds to growing ‘uneasiness’ over brand safety with new ad controls appeared first on Marketing Week.

An Essay Analysis on the Complex Ideology of Feminism

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics


Feminism is a general term used to describe a very broad and complex
ideology. There are lots of different feminist theories and approaches, as well as several different types of feminists. The most straightforward meaning however describes it as ‘a movement advocating the rights of women and of their social, political and economic equality with men’ (Scruton 150). Feminism views the personal experiences of women and men through gender identity (how people think of themselves), gender roles (how people act), and gender stratification (each sex’s social standing) are all rooted in the operation of society.

Certainly, as long as women have been subordinated, they have resisted that subordination. Sometimes the resistance has been collective and conscious. Despite the continuity of women’s resistance, however, only within the last two or three hundred years has a visible and widespread feminist movement emerged that has attempted to struggle in an organized way against women’s special oppression (Jaggar, 49).

            There are two types of feminism, the liberal and radical feminism. Liberal feminism is the dominant ideology of modern society and is grounded in classic liberal thinking that individuals should be free to develop their own talents and pursue their own interests and should be treated according to their individual merits rather than on others basis’s such as in the feminist’s case, sexual characteristics (Oakley 85). But because liberalism evolved in a context in which the private sphere of the family was excluded from political demands for equality, in which traditional social arguments remained strong, and in which the Church upheld women’s subordinate role in the family, liberal feminism developed.

Radical feminists, meanwhile, find the reforms called for by liberal feminism to be inadequate and superficial. The main goal for radical feminists is not to introduce equal rights, (they do not want women to become like men) but to free women from patriarchal control, the main challenge to patriarchy being in the form of separatism. While liberal feminists wish to create equality in society and are quite happy to live with men so long as they are not treated as lesser citizens, some radical feminists wish to see a policy, which would see women, cut themselves off from men entirely both socially and sexually (Fuss, 111).

In spite of the clear context of feminism, there are still some questions which arise regarding the feminism theory. Hence, different social leaders have been able to focus on understanding feminism and try to answer the questions that are being attached to feminism.  These three social groups include the socialists, the social democratic and the communist groups. Primarily, the main goal of this paper is to determine whether socialist, communist and social democratic leaders address the question of feminism.  The first part of the discussion includes the evolution of feminism and the second part will focus on the main topic of this paper.


Evolution of Feminism

In the mid-1800s the term feminism was used to refer to the qualities of females, and it was not until after the First International Women’s Conference in Paris in 1892 that the term, following the French term feministe, was used regularly in English for a belief in and advocacy of equal rights for women, based on the idea of the equality of the sexes. Although the term feminism in English is rooted in the mobilization for woman suffrage in Europe and the US during the late 19th and early 20th century efforts to obtain justice for women did not begin or end with this period of activism (Rendall, 2002).

 Other notable 19th-century feminists include, Emma Goldman, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Margaret Sanger. Feminism is not a new concept. Women have defended their rights, as they perceived them, on various battlefields throughout history. Even so, in the modern sense, Feminism can be said to have begun around 1830′s with the women’s movement for suffrage. Women, as a collective unit, stood together asserting their rights as members of society, to take equal part in the government that supposedly represented them. This movement is now known as the First wave of Feminism. Some forty years later women began mobilizing again and hence The Second Wave of Feminism arose out of the demand of equal pay for equal work.

In a sense, feminism has always existed. Certainly, as long as women have been subordinated, they have resisted that subordination. Sometimes the resistance has been collective and conscious. Despite the continuity of women’s resistance, however, only within the last two or three hundred years has a visible and widespread feminist movement emerged that has attempted to struggle in an organized way against women’s special oppression (Jaggar, 96).

One of the most important features of second wave feminism was the recognition that power was found in private as well as public life, and that for many women it was oppression in the private sphere that in fact harmed them the most. The popular political slogan of the day, The Personal is Political reflected the newfound importance of exploring the exercise of power in a variety of settings. As Arneil concludes, that each of the various forms of feminism developed its own ideas about how to break through this oppression of women in the private sphere (195).

Feminist theory is still a well – known and widely supported ideology, however, its high point was during the 1960′s and 1970′s in which many
of the goals that were sought, particularly by the liberal feminists, for instance the vote, equal opportunities at work and so forth have been more or less achieved. Some radical feminist ideas too, such as the legalization of abortion etc have also now been accomplished, although the other recommendations, concerning reproduction outside the female body have more or less been dismissed as too radical. The basic goal however for feminists from the beginning of the movement had been to emancipate women from society’s patriarchal order and this on the surface seems to have been achieved. More and more women are being employed in influential posts at work, men are seen to do more domestic and child associated activities and women of course now have the same access to education as men. However, it can also be seen that the majority of women in today’s society are still playing the
stereotypical female role in society.


Socialist Leaders and Feminism

            As mentioned, one of the groups which gives emphasis about the context of feminism are the Socialists groups which is headed by Karl Marx. It can be said that socialist feminists have spent much time thinking about issues regarding feminism, leading to the development of a rich body of feminist thought and practice. There are six central features of socialist feminism: class/capitalism, revolution, patriarchy, psychoanalysis, subjectivity and difference. These six features suggest a wide-ranging and eclectic mixture of ideas and influences which minimally include Marxism, radical feminism and psychoanalysis. This mixture of influences together with the tensions over class versus gender all combine to make socialist feminism a fascinating and very complex set of ideas and practices. Additionally, the fortunes of the politics of socialism around the world over the last couple of decades (especially with the demise of the Soviet Union) have necessarily impacted on all forms of theoretical socialism, including socialist feminism. This all adds to the complexity of contemporary socialist feminism.

Clearly socialist feminism has been deeply influenced by Marxism, but, the term ‘socialist feminism’ more accurately captures the breadth and numerous strands of this form of feminism. Nevertheless, it was Marxist theories of class and capitalism that initially inspired socialist feminists. However, their concern with women’s specific experiences within capitalism led them in a variety of directions. Initially a classic argument was that women were second-class citizens within systems of capitalism and patriarchy. Such systems depended on the exploitation of working people and the special exploitation of women (Humm :213). Marxist principles were applied to analyse how women’s work in the home was crucial to the functioning of capitalism and yet how it was not regarded as ‘real work’ as it was not part of the market economy.

Given socialist feminists’ commitment to analysing class as well as gender, it’s not surprising that other forms of difference began to be impossible to ignore. Ignoring differences around race and sexuality was a major criticism levelled at socialist feminists. In 1984 a group of black feminists took over editorial control of the socialist feminist journal Feminist Review, in which the claim was made that ‘a particular tradition, white, Eurocentric and Western, has sought to establish itself as the only legitimate feminism in current political practice’ (Amos and Parmar, 3).

Socialist view for feminism have had to deal seriously with charges of racism and Western bias in their construction of theories which are predicated on the relationship between class and gender hierarchies, to the outright neglect, or at best, the marginalization, of other axes of oppression (Marshall, 86). The issue of sexuality too, much of it stemming from radical feminism, caused major problems for socialist feminism. For some feminists, it was the issue of sexuality, rather than race, which produced the fundamental rift between feminists at the end of the 1970s and which ‘shattered any potential unity about the nature, direction and goal of feminism’. Briefly put, the existence of lesbianism and the concomitant issues of political lesbianism and/or separatism combined with the radical feminist insistence on the reality of men’s violence added further tension and complexity to socialist feminist theory and practice.

A flavour of that complexity can be found in this list of socialist feminist aims outlined by Alison Jaggar in 1983, namely: to reconstruct knowledge (Jaggar, 377); to abolish class and gender (ibid.: 317); to better material conditions (ibid.: 318); to abolish workerhood and womanhood as social categories (ibid.: 343); to construct a political economy of women’s subordination (ibid.: 134); and the material over-throw of male domination (ibid.: 384). All this was to be achieved by material and psychic revolution. A liberal feminist in the 1990s might turn to a socialist feminist and remark on the lack of success in achieving all these aims.


Social Democratic and Feminism

            Briefly, since the experience of the great economic depression with its severely high levels of unemployment in the 1920s there is possibly no single aspiration with which social democratic parties in Europe have identified themselves more closely than the achievement or maintenance of full employment. In fact, social democratic theory has been primarily concerned with searching for and applying a strategy which viewed the welfare state and full employment policies (i.e. social and economic citizenship) as necessary preconditions for a socialist transformation of society that was envisaged to be based on a modified efficient capitalist economy (Esping-Andersen & van Kersbergen, 188). In line with the questions of feminism, regarding the role of women in the society, social democratic parties give emphasis about the freedom from oppression.

            The main goal of the Social Democratic is to help the society build an alliance which will promote freedom from oppression.  The social democratic has been the key for the emergence of independent women’s liberation movement. The oppression of women as a sex involves the objective basis for the mobilization of women in struggle within their organisation. With the women’s movement, more women are being enlightened with their right against oppression.  The social democratic supports the development of women’s movement for the liberalization. Such commitment are based on the nation that women must be considered as an essential component of the working class, and like men they can be a potential ally of the working class in the struggle to eliminate capitalism.


Communists and Feminism

            In modern times, a Communist party is also regarded as a political party which supports communism. Communism means a political theory which favors collectivism in classless society. Communist Parties first began to be universally established throughout the world in the early 20th century. Communists are duty bound to discover, comprehend, engage, where appropriate, integrate insights from the different feminist perspectives, be they liberal, left or radical perspectives. In line with the question about feminism and the role that women must play in the society. Communist party pays attention for the concept of equality for women. Communist party clearly notes that men and women are distinct beings and the experiences of men are different from the experiences of women.  However, communist part is against the notion of individualistic-subjectivistic which implies that women and men exist in separate realities. Accordingly, the communists believe that individual and society, including the subjective and objective emerge in relation to one another, in a whole, dynamic and single reality.

            Thus, the communists are against the notion that the theories on gender, race and other singular aspects either confront the notion of Marxism or alters it as a universal theory of value and political practice and application. In France and in Italy, the communist parties have led in battles for reform of women’s status. The Eurocommunist CPs, have been able to show that they give importance to women by allowing them to be engage in public discussion and promote scornful condemnations of the responsibility of capitalism for the miserable treatment of women. However, in line with Eurocommunist CPs program and action, the approach to the freedom of women is like the opposition to a class-struggle fight for other demands of the working class.


Reason for Differences

Feminism can be best explained as the support for the social equality of the sexes, leading to opposition to patriarchy (social organisation in which males dominates females) and sexism. In concept and procedure feminism is highly variable. Those who see themselves as feminists advocate differing levels of criticisms of patriarchy and advance according alternatives to the status quo.

            It can be said that Socialist, Social Democratic and Communist leaders and parties have a common ground in terms of adhering to the questions of feminism and the role of the women in society.  However, each has their own way and concepts on how to address the issue about feminism. Such differences are caused by the different goals of each leaders and parties. The socialist group gives more emphasis about the capitalism issue about women, on the other hand, the social democratic highlights the freedom of oppression while the communist groups gives value to right of women to be part of the labour market and to see the capabilities of women equally with men.

            The differences of the perception of the three groups about feminism can also be attributed to the variety of approach they use in order to enlighten women about their rights and roles within the society.



            It shows that with the emergence of feminism theory and ideologies, different groups of people from the society have been able to contribute to this movement. Socialist, social democratic and communist parties are able to provide support to make the society realise the importance of women and the role that they play within the society. It can be concluded that although the approach of the three parties and leaders about feminism and the whole concept of womanhood are different from each other and their focus are not the same, the three only shows one objective and that is to understand better feminism and make other people realise the importance of women in the society.


Amos, V. and Parmar, P. (1984) ‘Challenging Imperial Feminism’, Feminist Review, vol. 17, pp. 3 – 19

Arneil, Barbara. Politics and Feminism. An Introduction, 1999.

Esping-Andersen, G. and K. van Kersbergen, ‘Contemporary research on social democracy’, Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 1992, pp. 187-208.

Fuss, Diana. Essentially speaking: Feminism, nature and difference. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Humm, Maggie, Feminisms and Women’s Movements in the 1990s. 1999

Jaggar, Alison M. Feminist politics and human nature. Sussex: Harvester, 1983.

Marshall, Barbara L. Engendering Modernity: Feminism, Social Theory, and Social Change. Northeastern Univ. Press, 1994.


Oakley, M. What is Feminism? Basil Blackwell, 1986.


Rendall, J Women’s politics in Britain 1780-1870:Claiming citizenship, York, 2002.


Scruton, R. A Dictionary of Political Thought. Harper & Row, New York, 1982.

Using SEO as a Competitive Marketing Strategy on Long Island

by adam @ White Dove Bird

Local businesses are always competing with new and unique marketing strategies. This couldn’t be more true for Long Island businesses. Today, SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is one of the most important internet marketing strategies, as it directly impacts the amount of visitors a company’s website will receive. And of course, more visitors means more potential buyers.   On Long Island, customers know exactly what they’re looking for. When they go to sites like Google or Bing to search for local services, you want to ensure that your business will be one of the first search results to appear. This is what SEO marketing is all about – to make sure your website is as relevant towards customers as possible. What is special about SEO is that it is an “organic” form of marketing – your web traffic is not being increased through spamming or buying ad placement. It is instead, a method of marketing based upon taking into consideration how the search engines actually work, and using them to the advantage of your business. The process of SEO isn’t necessarily only concerned with marketing towards the highest possible number of people, but is also concerned with getting the highest conversion of sales and leads possible.

The Contradictory Nature

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

this paper must demonstrate the contradictory nature of popular cultural texts. you should demonstrate the way that a women’s magazines (glamour magazine) is simultaneously part of popular culture but also indicative of the way that ideology is embedded within processes of cultural production.
What ideologies are encoded within the text?

· How might these ideologies be contradictory?

· How might semiotic analysis demonstrate the operation of ideology within the text?

· Is the text resistant to dominant power? If so, which formations of dominant ideologies is it resistant to?

· Is the text giving audiences what they want, or is it manipulating them?

· Is the text subculture or mass culture?

You should also make reference to how your chosen media format (and, wherever possible, your chosen text) has been interpreted by other critics. For example, if you are covering Cosmopolitan magazine but were unable to find appropriate discussions of Cosmopolitan you should still be referencing debates about how women magazines are discussed within cultural criticism. for this i would like to use the theories of

Important work: Feminism and Youth Culture (1991)

Again originally connected with the CCCS.

Focus on women worlds as subcultures.

 takes a textual approach to her subject  cultural materialism.

Main subject of analysis is teenage magazines Jackie and Just 17.

By exploring the magazines she attempts to gain and understanding of the role played by these texts in shaping women cultural identities.

Again shows and ambivalent attitude to the ideological functions of magazines.

* Are they propaganda that force girls into roles dictated by dominant ideology?
* Do they provide young women with genuine pleasures that enable them to bond with other girls and forge identities?


Angela and Garber, Marjorie (1991), Girls and Subcultures, in , Angela, Feminism and Youth Culture: From Jackie to Just Seventeen. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp: 1-15.

The Meaning of Mod in Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson Resistance through rituals: youth subcultures in post-war Britain

Further reading:

(1993), The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Rutledge

 (1981), Culture

John Lewis puts focus on social media with 360 ad trial and new hire

by Thomas Hobbs @ Marketing Week

The retailer is hiring for a new head of brand and social marketing role as it looks to differentiate its retail experience and invest in the brand.

The post John Lewis puts focus on social media with 360 ad trial and new hire appeared first on Marketing Week.

Tanya Joseph: Stop treating women as accessories and recognise their purchasing power

by Tanya Joseph @ Marketing Week

Women play minor roles in ad campaigns in a variety of sectors from automotive to utilities, missing their decisive influence in the purchase process.

The post Tanya Joseph: Stop treating women as accessories and recognise their purchasing power appeared first on Marketing Week.

SEO – How is it Different from SEM?

by adam @ White Dove Bird

What is Search Engine Optimization (SEO), and how is it different from Search Engine Marketing (SEM)? In the most basic terms, SEM is when companies promote their businesses by buying advertising space from search engines. This means that more people that use search engines like Google or Bing will be seeing their website, and therefore their website gets more visitors. Now, how is that different from SEO? SEO is special because is a method to your business as the highest-ranked search results possible, without being an advertisement. These is known as “natural” or “organic” search results. It is important to distinguish the difference between SEO and SEM because they are essentially completely different marketing tactics, even though they have similar end-goals. One reason why SEO may be more favourable is that you helps you establish better credibility in your searches. This means that when your website appears in someone’s search result, it will be more relevant to what they are looking for. Generating more web traffic is always important, but SEO may result in more relevant visitors that are more likely to be interested in your business. A combination of SEO and SEM is a solid tactic when aiming to promote a business online. However, investing too much into SEM without investing enough into SEO could prove fatal to your company’s online presence. After all, having a ton of ads for a site that nobody likes won’t help you at all!  Even though they are both different processes, SEO and SEM both stand to promote your business’s web pages. It is important to distinguish the differences between the two, and gauge which process is better for your company.

Dove: Body confidence campaigns prove our authenticity

Dove: Body confidence campaigns prove our authenticity

Marketing Week

Dove says it “walks the talk” when it comes to its body confidence campaigns, as it launches a toolkit to tackle body image anxiety among children.

How marketers are stepping up to take control of media

by Thomas Hobbs @ Marketing Week

Media transparency has become a major issue, but brands including Pernod Ricard, O2 and B&Q are taking steps to ensure they have more control and a better understanding of where their spend is going.

The post How marketers are stepping up to take control of media appeared first on Marketing Week.

CMO Today: Snap Map Location Ad Opportunities; Dove Pulls Breastfeeding Ad; Burger King’s ‘Edgy’ Strategy

CMO Today: Snap Map Location Ad Opportunities; Dove Pulls Breastfeeding Ad; Burger King’s ‘Edgy’ Strategy


Here's your morning roundup of the biggest marketing, advertising and media industry news and happenings.

Budget Airlines in Hong Kong: Oasis Hong Kong Airlines

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Budget Airlines in Hong Kong: Oasis Hong Kong Airlines



            Rev. Raymond C. Lee and his loving wife, Priscilla, founded Oasis Hong Kong Airlines in October 2006. Their reason is to provide long-haul travel accessible and available to all passengers. Because their aim is to provide access and availability of long-hauled flights to all passengers, they provided low-cost fares and the opportunity for passengers to customize their flight experiences by offering either business or economy class trips. Through their vision and mission, which is based on biblical principles of having a deep respect for all races, creeds, religions, Oasis Hong Kong Airlines extends its dedication of providing affordable and accessible business and leisure trips to all passengers. This provides all passengers with low fares and high quality and standards of comfort, safety, and service, thus, contributing to the building of an aviation culture in Hong Kong that helps to strengthen Hong Kong’s position, being the leading aviation hub in the whole of Asia Pacific. At present, the airlines fly daily non-stop between Hong Kong, from Hong Kong International Airport, and London in Gatwick Airport, and six times weekly between Hong Kong and Vancouver, Canada. In the future, Oasis Hong Kong Airlines plans to add routes and services to Europe and North America, thus, changing the future of long-haul travel to and from Asia (2007).


            From this brief history and information about Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, it can be understood that the positive intentions of the airlines transcends not only in providing services and convenience to customers, but also in offering and helping the city of Hong Kong with its advantage in terms of tourism, economy, and technology. With this, it would be helpful and essential to analyze the advantages, strategies, and the competitive advantages of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines in the market.


PEST Analysis

            The PEST Analysis establishes a good analysis of the external effects on a company by breaking them into essential and obvious sorts. External factors or the macro-environment of a specific organization, such as the Oasis Hong Kong Airlines pertains to the outside factors that the organization has no control of. This analysis should be done in order to assess the different factors that may serve to the future problems of the organization in terms of its operations in the market.


  • Political – Political aspects include government policies and regulations, legal issues, and formal and informal rules, from which the organization must base its operations (2007).


For the Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, the political factors that it must take note of include travel policies and restrictions of the British government, and other countries from which it wishes to operate. This is in line with the additional security imposed by the government of the United Kingdom in battling terrorism and threats in their country.


            In addition, Oasis Hong Kong Airlines must also comply with other agreements, such as its Open Skies Agreements with the United States, which would serve to open the aviation industry of Hong Kong to other countries. However, many more barriers can be identified, such as the restrictions in air services agreements or ASAs, alliances, mergers between carriers, limited access to airport infrastructures and ground handling services, access to computer reservation systems, and code-sharing arrangements (2000). 


  • Economic – Economic aspects of the business affect the purchasing power of customers or passengers, and the cost of capital of the organization (2007).


            Economic factors that must be taken note of by Oasis Hong Kong Airlines include additional taxes, increase in oil and commodity prices, increase in ticket prices, and global exchange rates.


            It has been reported that Hong Kong’s aviation industry contributes largely to its economy, being an international trading center in the Asian region. Its air transport contributed 8.1% in Hong Kong’s GDP in 1998, along with the employment of 325,851 individuals in both the import/export and tourism industries (2000). In 2006, new records were set by the Hong Kong International Airport, with passenger estimates of 9.1% and cargo throughput of 5.2%, thus, producing a total of 44.45 million passengers and 3.58 million metric tons of cargo ( 2007). In this regard, it can be seen that tourism and the import/export industries in Hong Kong serve to be the primary contributory factors in its economic activity. However, because the Hong Kong dollar is still dependent on the US dollar, changes in the value of the US dollar can still affect the purchasing power of the Hong Kong dollar.


  • Sociological – This includes the demographic and cultural aspects of the macro-environment of the organization. Sociological factors affect the needs of the customers and size of its market (2007).


            For the Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, sociological factors include the conflict regarding the physical conditions of customers, their different shopping patterns, their business intentions or career patterns, and the safety of Hong Kong. It has been reported that Hong Kong boasts an impressive array of human resources that includes not only mainland Chinese who have been educated and trained in the West, but also a standing force of lawyers, accountants, and other professionals hailing from every corner of the world ( 2002). The role of the educational attainment, demographics, and occupation of the citizens of Hong Kong would suggest the increased rate of travel to other countries, along with their intention of availing of cheaper services.


  • Technological – Factors under technology include e-commerce, Research and Development initiatives, automation, and technological changes, which reduce entry barriers, lowers costs of production, and influence outsourcing decisions ( 2007).


In this regard, Hong Kong uses both hard and soft technologies, where hard technology refers to specifications of goods and the mechanism of production, while soft technology refers to business process that includes organization, marketing, and managerial knowledge and skills (2003). As such, the use of advanced technology and information systems in Hong Kong, most especially through the World Wide Web and e-commerce would contribute significantly to the technological aspects of the business.


Aviation Market of Hong Kong

            To be able to identify and understand the aviation market or aviation industry of Hong Kong, its different characteristics must first be determined. Hong Kong has only one airport, the Hong Kong International Airport, reaching half of the world’s population within a flying time of only five hours, 24 hours a day. It has two runways, handles more than 49 aircraft movements per hour, and reaches over 130 cities around the world (2003). The Hong Kong International Airport has a significant role in the economy of Hong Kong, as air transportation activities are being serviced, including network and product externality. The hub-and-spoke operations in the airport provides additional route to its existing network, the network externality, while freight and passenger transports are its product externality, being complementary products of air services ( 2000). In addition, market entry barriers do not exist in Hong Kong for most products, along with the lack of tariffs on aviation products ( 2003), a sound judicial system, and low business taxes (2000). As such, it has been the most important source of international capital for Mainland China, as it provides a unique platform for business environments that is already familiar and supportive for many years in doing business, making an unrivalled wealth of knowledge in the future. The market of Hong Kong is also a channel for foreign capital into the Mainland, being its information hub for exploring business opportunities in Asia ( 2002). In this regard, it can be perceived that the extent or range of activities in Hong Kong serves to fuel its aviation industry, as it serves to be an effective and efficient means of enhancing and improving the economic advantages of Hong Kong.


            Certain advantages to the economy of Hong Kong can be identified, as the contributions of its aviation industry. Primarily, the aviation industry of Hong Kong has contributed a lot to its transportation activities, which accounts for the transport of passengers, cargo, and mail. In this regard, the transfer of cargo and passengers from Hong Kong to other parts of the world is being facilitated more effectively and in lesser extent of time, compared to sea travel. With Hong Kong’s aviation industry, more and more visitors and tourists are able to visit the city, thus, contributing to its tourism industry. According to the Hong Kong Tourism Board, on the 2004 Hong Kong Tourism Statistics, the total amount that visitors spent on entertainment was HK$ 1641 million ( 2005). With the development of its aviation industry, visitors and tourists have been visiting attractions known in Hong Kong, such as the new Hong Kong Disneyland, Ocean Park, Ngong Ping 360, and many others. Because Hong Kong’s tourism activities are enhanced by its aviation industry, its economy would also be developed, as tourism and economy goes hand-in-hand. The influx of tourists and visitors in Hong Kong can help gain huge revenues with the increase in tourist travel. This can prompt the government of Hong Kong to come up and create more tourists destinations and hotels, which can generate job opportunities. Along with this, the development and improvement of Hong Kong’s aviation industry and market provided the city to improve its export and import activities, which opened opportunities for increased foreign investments. As such, both local and international businesses are being enhanced in order to improve the economy of Hong Kong. In this regard, the aviation industry of Hong Kong has become a primary means for the city to participate in globalization. Globalization enables Hong Kong to exchange goods, services, financial capital, and knowledge with other countries ( 2006), thus, further enhancing the economic activities of the city. Last advantage brought about by Hong Kong’s aviation industry is the increase in competition. Increase in competition in the aviation industry offers improvement and variety in terms of services. Competition allows organizations to further develop and enhance their services, thus, making the aviation industry with growth and advancement.


            In relation to competition in the aviation industry of Hong Kong, several airlines can be identified, serving to be the rivals or competitors of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines. Two airlines, namely, Dragonair and Cathay Pacific Airways, Hong Kong’s major home carriers, serve to be the tight competitors of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines. Cathay Pacific Airways is one of the leading companies in the world’s airline industry in terms of volume of sales and profitability. It has also one of the widest connections among other international airline companies made possible through global networking. At present, it operates scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 104 destinations around the world, and ranks as the World’s Best Airline in 2003 and 2005 (2007). It currently operates a total of 106 aircrafts comprised by Boeings and Airbuses, with an average age of 7 years (2007). Dragonair is the second largest airline in Hong Kong, next to Cathay Pacific, and operates both cargo and passenger networks that reach a variety of destinations in the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, and the Middle East ( 2007). It currently operates 37 Boeings and Airbuses, with 400 flights a week to Mainland China ( 2007). Given the market of Hong Kong and the different airlines that can accommodate that market, it can be understood that the aviation or airline industry of Hong Kong can serve customers effectively and efficiently. This would not have been the evaluation in terms of Hong Kong’s aviation industry, if Hong Kong has not become China’s main entry port of business, foreign investments, tourism, and other economic activities. As such, it can be perceived that through the aviation industry of Hong Kong, the different economic, political, sociological, and technological aspects have been developed and improved.  


Competitive Position of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines

            In order to know and analyze the competitive position of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, the theory of competitive advantage must first be taken note of. It has been mentioned that competition serves to be one of the means of the development of any industry, including the aviation industry. In this regard, competition serves to be the driving factor of improvement and development of the different airlines in Hong Kong. This emphasizes the concept of competitive advantage in the aviation industry, which refers to the edge of a particular organization over its competitors that is brought about its planned actions and strategies in terms of its market, operations, and management. This concept emphasizes all the important aspects in the operations and management of a certain organization, including suppliers, prices, resources, and capabilities. One of the theories of competitive advantage is the Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage. This theory emphasizes the combination of the internal and external strategies, where internal perspectives refer to the organization’s core competence and the external perspectives refer to the structure of the industry (1985). In this theory, the resources of the organization are being assessed to determine its needed strategy for its perceived success in the market. In addition, Porter’s Competitive Rivalry can also be used in the analysis of Oasis competitive advantage. In this regard, it must be recognized that the company has many equally attractive competitors, making the airlines having little power in the situation (2007). In this sense, if the airlines can offer other services unlike the products and services of its competitors, then it can win its competitive advantage.  


            Using this theory on competitive advantage and Porter’s Competitive Rivalry, the competitive position of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines can be determined. Because resource-based competitive advantage emphasizes on the resources of the organization in focus, it can be perceived that the success of Oasis over its competitors can be brought about by its use of available sources. Primarily, the competitive advantage of Oasis Airlines lies on the fact that it was able to meet the needs of its customers. Meeting the needs of customers emphasizes the notion that customers at this time are more knowledgeable, more analytical, more demanding, and provide more strategic information (2000). This also emphasizes the fact that customers nowadays are not satisfied only with few products, and thus need a variety of products to satisfy their demands and needs. With the increase in the development and improvement in terms of the economy and tourism of Hong Kong, the organization saw the opportunity of providing new alternatives for passengers and cargo that may compete with the existing airlines in the city. In addition, because the airline is relatively new to the market, the analytical and more demanding characteristics of consumers would enable them to try the service being offered by Oasis Airlines. In this regard, the airline has taken advantage of the curiosity of its market.


            Another competitive advantage of Oasis Airlines over its competitors is its flexibility, by custom designing solutions for the airlines’ customers, in anticipating their needs (2007). Customizing the needs of its passengers led the airlines to offer two hot meals and soft drinks for free on both classes, free service of snacks and alcoholic drinks for the business class, free headphones, blankets and pillows in both classes, purchase of noise-canceling headphones and amenity kits, and having a seat-back TV with at least 16 channels, along with 12 channels of audio (2007). In addition to such services is the emphasis of Oasis Airlines of the significant role Information Technology play in its performance. Michael Wirth, the airlines’ head of Information Technology pointed out that the organization’s IT plays an intrinsic part in their corporate development, as it supports the airlines’ new generation business distribution model. Through the Information Technology of Oasis Airlines, the airline is able to implement its direct distribution model, which enables passengers to directly buy tickets from the company through its web site. In this regard, the challenging part of implementing this model is to make the system secured, convenient and safe ( 2007). In relation to this is the adopted IT system of Oasis Airlines is its distribution system, which has three major channels, namely, consumer-direct, direct through-trade, and indirect through-trade. Through the indirect through-trade system, tickets are sold over the Global Distribution System, where travel agencies are connected and bring the airlines with wider reach and extent. Through the direct through-trade and consumer-direct channels, tickets are directly sold to consumers through the World Wide Web, and through their application of the Oasis Smart.Net service ( 2007). These distribution channels indeed increase the competitive advantage of the airlines, as they target the direct distribution of their tickets to further reduce the costs and spending of their consumers. In this regard, it can be perceived that in this competitive advantage, Porter’s Supplier Power and Buyer Power can be recognized. Through the distinctive and unique features of the airlines, it can be observed that the uniqueness of service of the airlines is attributed to its suppliers, which have the ability to substitute and make the features of the airlines cost-effective while meeting the demands of the passengers. On the other hand, the buyer power of the customers is also observed, as related to this particular competitive advantage, as being cost-effective, the passengers would be able to purchase services from the company to avail of its services. Because the features of the airlines are more user-friendly, and its price more affordable than its competitors, targeting low-spending customers would be easy to do.


            One of the most important aspects of an organization’s competitive advantage is its team or employees. In this regard, teamwork and team leadership is being emphasized and becomes the source of the strength and cooperation of the whole organization. With regards to team leadership, both the roles and responsibilities of the team leader and his or her members interact with one another in order to fulfill their goals and objectives. Likewise, Oasis Airlines believes so. It has been reported that the airline is comprised only of a small team, having only a handful of employees that serve cross-departmental functions (2007). In this regard, the few employees comprising the organization have become one of the competitive advantages of the airlines. This is because it can be perceived that because the organization has lesser employees, dissipating information and knowledge is easier for them to control and manage, compared to larger organizations. Most employees comprising Oasis Airlines perform a number of functions and tasks, thus, making it easier for the organization to facilitate communication and responsibilities.


            Last and most important competitive advantage of Oasis Airlines is their cheap ticket prices compared with their competitors. It has been reported that the price of a business class ticket offered by Oasis Airlines can be comparable to the price of an economy class ticket in other airlines ( 2007). This is line with the goal or objective of the airlines to provide its customers with affordable and available services that would suit their budget. In this regard, this strategy of the airlines is to raise the competition in the aviation industry of Hong Kong and to provide potential customers with convenience and quality at a lower cost. However, basing on Porter’s Threat of Substitution, it can be perceived that some airlines would be offering cheap prices similar to the strategy of Oasis Airlines. This is because, they deem that cheaper tickets would be more attractive to consumers, than higher ones, if and if the quality of service meets their expectations. In this sense, due to the threat of substitution, the power and the advantage of the airlines in the market may be weakened (2007). In addition, such advantage of Oasis Airlines in the market of Hong Kong and other countries can be analyzed using Porter’s Threat of New Entry. It has been reported that if the company has little protection for its key technologies, then new competitors can quickly enter its market and weaken its competitive position (2007). In this regard, to be able to preserve the competitive advantage of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, it must be able to strengthen its barriers to entry and preserve its position in the market.




Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Adolescent

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics


Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Adolescent



Final Paper















            This paper discusses the details importantly to take note of regarding the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent or MMPI-A. This describes the historical background of the test in order to provide useful background or support of the discussion. It also includes the general description of the test, which would be highly useful in the progression of the discussion. Psychometric qualities of the test were also provided, which includes the standardization, validity, and reliability of the test. Its varied uses were also given importance, such as its use in the clinical or medical, legal or forensic, and psychological uses. A critique of the test was done through determining and analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the test, by stating its psychometric qualities, and by discussing the relevant ethical and legal issues involved in its use. Part of the paper is to specify its use in the practical setting, which indicates its purposes, benefits, challenges, and use of the results of the test. At the end of the paper, a conclusion was done, which places emphasis on the summary of what was discussed in the paper and the personal thoughts of the author.  







Table of Contents


Title Page                                                                                                                    1

Abstract                                                                                                                      2

Table of Contents                                                                                                       3

Introduction                                                                                                                4

Description of the Test and Its History                                                                      4

Psychometric Qualities of the Test                                                                             6

Uses of the Test                                                                                                          8

Critique of the Test                                                                                                     10

Description of the Use of the Test in Own Setting                                                    13

Conclusion                                                                                                                  14

References                                                                                                                  16





            The drastic changes happening in the society today significantly affect the welfare, personality, perceptions, and even the future of adolescents, thus, affecting the future of the entire society as well. Such changes lead to more serious problems that result to emotional, physical, and psychological damages in individuals that consequently yield to other social problems, such as increased rates and cases of juvenile delinquency, crimes involving adolescents, abortion, single-parenthood, and diseases caused by sexual aggression, such as AIDS and sexually-transmitted illnesses. With these problems at hand, the field of psychology would be able to help the society, particularly the adolescents in terms of introducing psychological tests, which would assist adolescents in measuring their personality, such as the MMPI-A or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The different details about the test, including its qualities and uses are discussed in the paper, including its critique and application. At the end of the paper, a conclusion is provided in order to highlight the important points discussed in the paper.


Description of the Test and Its History (Important Evolutionary Milestone)

            It has been reported by Archer (2005) that the work on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or the MMPI was begun by Stark R. Hathaway, a psychologist, and J.C. McKinley, a neuropsychologist, in 1937. The authors of the test were motivated to come up a “personality inventory” based primarily on noticing that a large proportion of clients for medical treatment manifested psychoneurotic complaints. As such, Hathaway and McKinley sought to develop an instrument that would be useful in determining and describing clients in a manner that was more effective and appropriate than using psychiatric interview techniques, which are traditionally used for psychological evaluations of medical clients. During the continuous development and administration of the test, its application is extended to adolescent populations for both clinical and research purposes. Although the administration of MMPI was intended for individuals who were 16 years of age and older, Dahlstrom et al (1972) noted that it can be also used effectively with “bright children as young as 12”, thus, the delineation of age 12 as its lower limit in terms of MMPI administration was probably related to the estimate that a sixth-grade reading level was a prerequisite for understanding the MMPI item pool (p. 24).

            The year 1941 marks the first research application of the MMPI with adolescents, which is two years before the formal application of MMPI in 1943. Dora Capwell, in 1945 indicated that the test has an ability to accurately discriminate between groups of delinquent and non-delinquent adolescent girls based on Pd scale elevation. The validity of the test was also proven by Hathaway and Monachesi, who collected the largest MMPI data set ever obtained on adolescents, in a longitudinal study of the relationship between MMPI findings and delinquent behaviors. In the end, the study done by Hathaway and Monachesi proved to be very valuable in a number of ways, namely, by (1) establishing that the MMPI can usefully predict at least one broad area of important behavior exhibited by adolescents, which is delinquency; (2) providing a body of crucial information concerning differences in item endorsement for male vs. female adolescents and for adolescents vs. adults; (3) providing a major component of the traditionally used adolescent norms, which is later developed by Marks and Briggs; and (4) providing an extraordinarily rich source of data for follow-up investigations of the original Hathaway and Monachesi subjects, across topics from the prediction of juvenile delinquency to the personality precursors of schizophrenia (Archer, 2005, pp. 30-32). Thus, with such findings, at present, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is now the most frequently used objective personality instrument employed with adolescents (Janus et al., 1998, p. 321). It is now the most frequently used self-report measure to determine adolescents who are in need of psychological intervention and used to identify such adolescents from those displaying the normal spectrum of emotional and behavioral liability (as cited in Hand et al., 2007, p. 80). With this, it is often employed in court cases in order to provide personality information on defendants or litigants in which psychological adjustment factors are relevant to the resolution of the case. Its administration is fairly easy, thus, providing an objective measure of personality. Being a well-researched and highly-reliable instrument, the test is often used in custody evaluations, as it provides clear and valid descriptions of the problems, symptoms, and characteristics of individuals in broadly accepted clinical language. In addition, the profiles are manageable to explain in court and appear to be relatively simple for people to comprehend (Karp and Karp, 2008).  


Psychometric Qualities of the Test (Standardization, Reliability and Validity)

            Standardization of the Test. It has been indicated that the MMPI was re-standardized in 1992 specifically for use with adolescents, in part to resolve normative confusion and to modify its original form for more appropriate use with adolescent respondents. The development of the MMPI-A involved the collection of normative data for 805 boys and 815 girls between the ages of 14 and 18, inclusive. Its final form included the original 13 basic validity and clinical scales with significant basic scale changes largely restricted to scales F, Mf, and Si. Although endorsement frequencies for the MMPI-A items were examined, comparisons between normative and clinical samples were not used as criteria in retaining or modifying the basic scales. It also included the development of 15 content scales, where eleven overlap with similar measures developed for MMPI-2, whereas 4 scales were uniquely developed for the MMPI-A (Archer et al., 2001, p. 421).  

            Reliability. Groth-Marnat (2003) reports that reliability studies indicate that MMPI-A had moderate levels of temporal stability and internal consistency, due to fluctuations in some scales. For example, Scale 2 (Depression) is particularly likely to be lowered after successful treatment; Scale 7 (Psychasthenia) would be likely to change according to an individual’s external situation. Thus, in this sense, test-retest reliability may actually be an inappropriate method of evaluating these scales for certain populations. In addition, this defense of the tests’ reliability is somewhat undermined by the observation that test-retest reliability is actually slightly more stable for psychiatric populations than for normals. Whereas the media range for psychiatric clients is about .80, media reliabilities for normals are about .70. Split-half reliabilities are likewise moderate, having an extremely wide range from .05 to .96 with median correlations in the .70s (as cited in Groth-Marnat, 2003, p. 221).

            Validity. It has been indicated that findings from studies of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A have mostly been consistent with studies done of the original MMPI. Investigations and studies have suggested that an incremental, though modest, contribution to the accuracy of clinical prediction when the MMPI is compared or combined with other sources of clinical information. Moreover, evidence for the convergent validity of the MMPI, MMPI-2, and MMPI-A is generally recognized to be better than that for its discriminant validity. The method of contrasted groups, in which the item responses of a pathological criterion group are contrasted with those of a diverse group of psychiatrically healthy individuals, used for the development of the basic clinical scales has been the subject of criticism on both theoretical and psychometric grounds. Thus, in this regard, this method of scale construction increased sensitivity but allowed considerable item overlap, giving rise to enhanced correlations among the clinical scales and reduction of specificity and compromising discriminant validity. As a result, the test tends to perform better in discriminating between major psychiatric conditions than it does within them (American Psychiatric Assocation, 2000, p.91).


Uses of the Test

            Primarily, the basic use of MMPI-A is in clinical settings. One clinical application of its use has been emphasized in the study done to address concerns about the mixing of different developmental ages, use of inadequate comparison groups, and the lack of reliance on reliable and valid measures of psychological, behavioral, and psychosocial problems used in previous studies of sexually abused children and adolescents. Through the administration of the test, the study has found out that a number of significant differences between reportedly sexually abused and non-sexually abused on the MMPI-A scales are reported, and a significantly larger proportion of sexually abused participants were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder had numerous difficulties. Based on the tests, sexually abused adolescents had significantly higher elevations on scales that reflect thoughts of self-harm, depression, feelings of worthlessness, withdrawal from others and frequent running away. In addition, adolescents with such elevations tend to see their future as hopeless, feel that no one understands them, and consequently, respond minimally to treatment (Forbey et al., 2000, pp.9-10). Thus, clinicians must be able to take note of such factors in order to provide better diagnosis and treatment for such adolescents.

            Another use of the MMPI-A is for research purposes. It has been emphasized that the test manual for MMPI-A not only provides extensive data based on its normative sample but also provides psychometric data derived from a clinical sample of 420 boys and 293 girls between the ages of 14 and 18, inclusive. It also provided the mean MMPI-A profiles for 1,032 girls and 730 boys in psychiatric treatment who had completed the original MMPI, with the protocols rescored on MMPI-A norms. Through the test, a variety of studies have already been studied in relation to profile characteristics of adolescents in residential or inpatient psychiatric facilities, eating disorder programs, and in several inpatient and outpatient treatment programs for juvenile offenders (Forbey et al., 2000, p.3). Thus, in this regard, it can be understood that the test significantly provides additional information and knowledge regarding the different issue at hand.

            The next use of MMPI in adolescents is having knowledge regarding their personality and measuring their type of personality, which would be very helpful in assessing and understanding themselves. Once an adolescent or his/her parents or guardians are able to have adequate knowledge regarding their personality, then they would able to come up with strategies that would contribute to behavior modification, most especially when the behavior of the adolescent creates nuisance or havoc to the family, community or society. In relation to this are the forensic or legal uses of the MMPI-A. There are a variety of referral questions that the MMPI-A can be useful for answering, as the clinical constructs assessed by this instrument are often relevant to forensic issues or to individuals being treated in forensic settings. Some of the uses include competency to stand trial and insanity evaluations, personal injury and disability assessments, and assessment of general mental functioning for purposes of placement and treatment planning (Archer, 2006, p.70).


Critique of the Test (Strengths and Weaknesses, Psychometric Qualities and Issues)

            Strengths and Weaknesses. Primarily, its strength is its ability to provide a comprehensive clinical description for adolescents (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384). The test is helpful in assessing and evaluating the personality and associated behaviors of the adolescents, thus, making it easier to understand them. It also evaluates a wide range of symptoms and areas of functioning (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384), which can be used in clinical, psychological, and legal settings. In addition, clinicians using MMPI-A recognize the value of the updated normative sample, which is nationally representative, and includes minority populations (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384). In this sense, the sample does not exclude other representatives of the population, making the test more reliable and valid. The use of the test indicated ease of administration and psychometric soundness. This is because many of the newer scales, particularly the content scales have excellent internal consistency. Another major strength of the test is its ability to check for response biases and its ability to evaluate profile validity. This is because the test includes validity scales, which were also strengths of the MMPI, such as F, L, and K. In addition to such validity scales are the VRIN and TRIN scales, which show promise for determining inconsistent responding or a tendency for acquiescent or non-acquiescent responding. Lastly, the MMPI-A’s research base is supported by decades of MMPI investigations (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384), thus, making the descriptors and correlates of the test highly supported by studies and facts derived from researches.

            However, despite such strengths are a number of weaknesses of the MMPI-A, which include its foundation. This is because most of the basic clinical scales were retained with minimal modification, thus, several of such scales show low internal consistency, specifically when evaluated by today’s standards. In addition, many items are found on more than one scale, thus, contributing to higher correlations among scales. This can lead to uncertainty and confusion in the process of interpretation. Another weakness is that a significant number of items on both the basic and content scales do not demonstrate differential rates of endorsement between clinical and normative groups (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2003, p.384).

            Psychometric Qualities. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory had a long history of use in the assessment of adolescents in various settings, including inpatient and outpatient psychiatric programs, substance abuse programs, and juvenile justice facilities. Similar to the parent and sister instruments of the MMPI-A, the individual scales of the MMPI-A often show appreciable intercorrelation. Factor analyses of the basic clinical and validity scales suggest that four factors account for the majority of the observed variance in scales scores. Furthermore, the large number of individual scales and subscales available on the MMPI-A serves to make the interpretation process quite complex for many clinicians, particularly given the varying degree of overlap between the scales (Archer et al., 2002, pp.1-2).

            Specific Ethical and Legal Issues. It has been indicated that psychologists using the MMPI-A must adhere to ethical guidelines governing both psychological assessment and professional practice with minors. The “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” notes that users of psychological assessment devices must have appropriate training and expertise. The manual of the MMPI-A indicates that competent use of the MMPI-A requires knowledge of psychopathology and diagnosis, adolescent development and personality, and psychometric principles and concepts, as well as mastery of the MMPI-A’s content and structure. Although technicians may administer and score the MMPI-A, they must be thoroughly trained and closely supervised by qualified psychologists. The ethics code of the American Psychological Association also requires discussion with adolescents and their parents or guardians of the limits of confidentiality, the purpose of the assessment, how assessment results will be used, and the extent to which feedback will be provided and to whom. These issues become especially complex in forensic settings, where assessment may be ordered by the court (Hersen, 2004, p.219). In relation to its use in forensics, ethical and legal issue involves evaluating adolescents in civil cases rests on its ability to provide an overview of the plaintiff’s psychological or emotional functioning in reference to well-established adolescent norms (Archer, 2006, p.70).


Description of the Use of the Test in Own Setting

            Purpose. In the hospital setting, the purpose of the MMPI-A is to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment to clients, particularly to the adolescents concerned with by the test. It also allows understanding of the issues and problems experienced or faced by the adolescents in the family, community, and society. Another objective or purpose of the use of MMPI-A is to provide relevant solutions for the problems of the adolescents, thus, helping them avoid or prevent severity of their psychological, emotional, and social problems.

            Benefits/Usefulness. One of the benefits of using the MMPI-A is to obtain more knowledge about the practice, thus, enabling medical practitioners to have develop more skills in the area. Another benefit is exposure to different cases, thus, having more references for future applications. The use of the test also provides more accurate and more relevant procedures for better diagnosis and treatment. Lastly, better medical practice can be developed through using the test.

            Challenges. The lack of cooperation and communication among the staff and the clients is one challenge. The lack of knowledge in the administration and the use of the results of the test are also considered. The lack of priority in using the test and the lack of recognition of its importance and implications are also challenges.

            How Results would be Used. Results would be used for additional researches. They can also be used for better treatment of the adolescents. The results can be used to provide better analysis of the problems of the adolescents in the community, thus, giving them useful and relevant options as solutions.



            Based on the discussion, it can be deduced that the use of MMPI-A is relevant and significant in the field of psychology, particularly in relation to clinical, legal, and psychological applications. The different details regarding the test were provided, including the major descriptions, validity, reliability, standardization, strengths and weaknesses, and its practical applications in the medical field. In addition, the historical background was specified in the beginning of the discussion in order to provide a background of the test. The different uses of the test were also identified, thus, emphasizing its practicality and applicability in different fields.

            In terms of its future applications, I believe that due to the rich sources and researches to support it, more and more applications can be thought of and proven in relation to the use of MMPI-A. In addition, the many uses and benefits of using the test serve to be the basis for its continued use in the clinical, legal, and psychological field. In the future, it can be perceived that more fields would be using the MMPI-A, such as education, sociology, politics, and economy. Furthermore, future applications of the test may also involve its further modification, which would help its users in terms of better application and results. Thus, it can be suggested that in addressing its limitations or weaknesses, the use of the test would be far more relevant and applicable in the present situation of the community and society, particularly in helping the society address the problems that concern the welfare of the adolescents.    



American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Task Force for the Handbook of Psychiatric Measures. Handbook of Psychiatric Measures, 1st ed. USA: American Psychiatric Association.

Archer, R.P. (2006). Forensic Uses of Clinical Assessment Instruments. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Archer, R.P. (2005). MMPI-A: Assessing Adolescent Psychopathology, 3rd ed. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Archer, R.P., Bolinskey, P.K, Morton, T.L. and Farris, K.L. (2002). A Factor Structure for the MMPI-A: Replication with Male Delinquents. Assessment, 9(4): 319-326.

Archer, R.P., Handel, R.W. and Lynch, K.D. (2001). The Effectiveness of MMPI-A Items in Discriminating Between Normative and Clinical Samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77(3): 420-435.

Forbey, J.D., Ben-Porath, Y.S. and Davis, D.L. (2000). A Comparison of Sexually Abused and Non-Sexually Abused Adolescents in a Clinical Treatment Facility using the MMPI-A. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(4), 557-568.

Groth-Marnat, G. (2003). Handbook of Psychological Assessment, 4th ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hand, C.G., Archer, R.P., Handel, R.W. and Forbey, J.D. (2007). The Classification Accuracy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent: Effects of Modifying the Normative Sample. Assessment, 14(1): 80-85

Hersen, M. (2004). Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Janus, M.D., de Groot, C. and Toepfer, S.M. (1998). The MMPI-A and 13-Year-Old Inpatients: How Young is Too Young?. Assessment, 5(4): 321-332.

Karp, C.L. and Karp, L. (2008). General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from

Reynolds, C.R. and Kamphaus, R.W. (2003). Handbook of Psychological and Educational Assessment of Children: Personality, Behavior, and Context, 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press.







Why Use SEO Services to Promote Your Long Island Company?

by adam @ White Dove Bird

Search Engine Optimization, or SEO for short, is the process of affecting how visible your website is in a search engine. SEO is not the same thing as “paid” search engine advertising, because it is concerned with the “organic” or “natural” search results that people are looking for. SEO services exist to make sure that a website will appear in a search engine more frequently, and to ensure that a website is getting more visitors from search engine users.   SEO services are especially important for Long Island companies, because there are many local business competing for search engine relevance. SEO can be used to guarantee that your company is one of the first results that appears when users search specific keywords. For example, somebody may search “Long Island Weddings”, if they are looking for a local wedding service. If you are a wedding venue or a catering hall, you’re probably going to want your company to appear as high on that search list as possible. This is where SEO services come in! Here’s how SEO works – your websites and webpages are analyzed by SEO professionals, and they come up with solutions that will ensure that they are picked up by search engines, so your website comes up first. Search engine services like Google are not people – they are robots and algorithms that are designed to compile information, which is especially difficult on a local level. This is why SEO services are so great! – SEO people are real people that can translate your company’s services to be advertised towards fellow Long Island customers.

Dove introduces ‘Real Beauty Bottles’ to mimic your body type — and the internet is freaking out

Dove introduces ‘Real Beauty Bottles’ to mimic your body type — and the internet is freaking out

Global News

The six bottle shapes are representative of the diversity of women's bodies, but social media isn't having it.

How to Develop a Successful Business Growth Strategy

by Felicia Rosenzweig @ Prophet Thinking

Through market penetration and expansion, organizations can develop a business growth strategy that works in the long-term. Here’s how.

The post How to Develop a Successful Business Growth Strategy appeared first on Prophet Thinking.

Critical Race Analysis on Mountain Dew Commerical

by KPPS @ Media and Cultural Analysis, Spring 2014

Watch Mountain Dew Commercial Here On April 2013, PepsiCo has released an ad for their brand, Mountain Dew. After its release on the internet, an ad quickly grabbed people’s attention by being “arguably the most racist commercial in history” (Kim). By employing critical race analysis, I argue that this commercial reinforces racial stereotypes against black […]

Luxury & sales force: learn to manage brand ambassadors

by aufeminin @ Womenology

Of the top fifteen international luxury brands, seven are French. French brands represent 25% of the world market in luxury personal assets (fashion, accessories, perfume, watches and jewellery), or 212 billion euros (Cabinet Bain & Company – 2012). (1) In …

Continuer la lecture

The post Luxury & sales force: learn to manage brand ambassadors appeared first on Womenology.

Dove | BrandStruck: Brand strategy database

Dove | BrandStruck: Brand strategy database


Category: FMCG Personal care & beauty – hair care, body care, deodorants Owner of the brand: Unilever Key competitors: L’Oréal, Garnier, Nivea, Olay, Avon

Why market research and analysis are essential for every company’s success - Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG

Why market research and analysis are essential for every company’s success - Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG

Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG

There are so many ways for a business to accomplish their goals and achieve the riches. They can innovate new products, find niche markets, or drive their operations to be more efficient. But the key to a company’s success is a combination of market research and market analysis. A lot of businesses don’t conduct their …

L’Oréal: a success story in international marketing to women

by aufeminin @ Womenology

Established in 130 countries across five continents, L’Oréal group’s international success represents an international marketing model based on skill, knowledge and an unshakeable reputation. How has L’Oréal created this image and reputation? How has the group won over women around the …

Continuer la lecture

The post L’Oréal: a success story in international marketing to women appeared first on Womenology.

Dove’s Emphasis on a Culture’s “Real Beauty”: A Comparative and Critical Analysis of American and Chinese Dominant Ideologies Revealed within Marketing Strategy (PDF Download Available)

Dove’s Emphasis on a Culture’s “Real Beauty”: A Comparative and Critical Analysis of American and Chinese Dominant Ideologies Revealed within Marketing Strategy (PDF Download Available)


Official Full-Text Paper (PDF): Dove’s Emphasis on a Culture’s “Real Beauty”: A Comparative and Critical Analysis of American and Chinese Dominant Ideologies Revealed within Marketing Strategy

Sample Essay on Employee Motivation of Nordstrom

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Employee Motivation: the of the Nordstrom Legend


Identified Problems of Nordstrom



      Different perception and understanding of the employees on the tradition and policies of the company


      Lack of training that will inculcate the values and beliefs of the company


      Weak company culture that divides the workforce




Theories included in the Report



      Good Customer Relations


      Motivation-hygiene Theory


      Training as a means of educating the workforce




            Nordstrom is one of the biggest department stores in the United States. The beginnings of Nordstrom can be traced more than 100 years ago to a small shoe store in downtown Seattle. The humble beginnings of the store soon caught the attention of the market and they were able to expand their business to other states. From selling shoes, the store expanded their business by offering clothing lines for the whole family.


            It has always been a family for Nordstrom. The management of the business has been handed down from one generation of the Nordstrom family to the next. The family affair perception of the business led the company to believe that customers must also be treated like family if the company wants to ensure that they will return. This started the legendary customer service that Nordstrom provides to its shoppers.


According to Bain and Co. (qtd. in Bhaskaran), it is more expensive to gain new customers rather than retaining them. The cost is estimated to be 6 to 7 times higher. They also stated that if customer retention increased by 5 percent, profit can increased between 25 to 95 percent. This numbers are significant given that on the average an American business looses about 50 percent of their customers every 5 years (qtd. in Bhaskaran). However, on average American companies lose 50 percent of their customers every 5 years.  This, to a certain degree, it proves that there is an indirect relation between customer satisfaction and increase in sales through increased customer retention.


This numbers also indicates that building lasting customer relations can be beneficial to the company. The importance of building a lasting customer relation runs in the tradition of Nordstrom. From the management level to the salespeople that they employee they instill the value of good customer relations. The legend of Nordstrom when it comes to customer relations is not just supported internal stories; customers also validate the claim that Nordies are willing to go beyond the call of duty to ensure customer satisfaction (Pohlman and Gardiner 140).


However, the very culture that catapulted the Nordstrom business brought about a wave of controversies that sprang from within their ranks. Some employees have claimed that due to the desire of the company to please each and every customer that enter their stores, employees are the ones who are forced to take the burden. Heeding to the call of the customers became obligatory, if an employee wishes to continue working for Nordstrom. Off-the-clock work became a normal routine in among Nordstrom employees in order to deliver the kind of service that customers expect. Former employees claim that this kind of working condition is oppressive.


On the other hand, majority of the Nordstrom employees feels the opposite. They believe that the company policies are called for and that nothing should be changed. This division among the Nordstrom employees sparked the need to write this report. The aim of the report is to present possible explanations for the occurrence of the different views regarding the Nordstrom culture among its employees. The report will be focusing on the subject of employee motivation and how it affects the perception of the employees regarding their jobs and how this perception affects their performance.


Employee Motivation in Nordstrom


            It has often been said that prevention is always better than cure. Medical doctors have advised their patients repeatedly that the best way to stay healthy is to avoid getting sick. They also advised that maintaining good hygiene is one way to ensure that viruses and bacteria will not find their way into the human system and disrupts its normal operations. One such manifestation of good hygiene is constant hand washing. This is recommended to kill bacteria that pose potential life threatening outcomes.


            In the business world, maintaining good hygiene is also important. However, the definition of hygiene factors within the business world is different from its medical counterpart. Nevertheless, the premise behind the usage of the term is relatively based on a common notion of prevention rather than cure.


In the same way that the medical profession recognizes the presence of bacteria and viruses, the business community recognizes the presence of factors that can result to poor work attitudes of employees (Mausner, Snyderman and Herzberg 114). These factors are known as hygiene factors and include supervision, working conditions, security, peer relationships, salary and company policies (Herzberg).


In the case of Nordstrom, employee salary is one of the key factors that allows the business to keep its employees. The business is performance –based. This means that employees will be compensated based on metrics. One of the decisive metrics that affect the compensation of the employees at Nordstrom is sales per hour (SPH). Commissions are large part of employees’ salaries.


The commission scheme of the company is designed to go with the performance-based rating of the Nordstrom. The commission system of Nordstrom is called draw. In this system the employees will be compensated based as follows, commission percentage times the total sales for the pay period or hourly rates times the total work hours, depending which is higher. This implies that an employee has greater chances of being paid higher if he or she has a high sales margin.


            According to Mausner, Synderman and Herzberg (114), factors that result to positive attitudes are able to do so because they satisfy man’s need for self-actualization or self-realization. According to many personality theorists, man have the innate yearning to experience the feeling of fulfillment in various aspects of life. One of the most important aspects of life is job fulfillment.  This fulfillment can prove that man is unique based on his/her own personality in relation to the boundaries of reality.


            The statements abovementioned suggests that the factors help man realize his/her life goals. It gives them the drive to excel in various aspects of life. In the workplace setting, these factors function in the same way. Hygiene factors, for example, prevent the proliferation of dissatisfaction among employees. This means that the absence of low levels of hygiene factors will result to the dissatisfaction of the employees and thus affecting their job performance. 


            However, studies have shown that the increase of hygiene factors do not translate in the increase of job satisfaction. This means that another set of factors affect the increase of job satisfaction and that hygiene factors are present just to control the levels of dissatisfaction. Factors that help increase job motivation are known as motivators. Motivators include recognition, advancement and growth to name a few (Internet Centre for Management and Business Administration, Inc).


            Let us take some of the presented hygiene factors and analyze their absence result to dissatisfaction.  First, there is salary.  People work to gain financial independence or stability. This means that they expect companies to compensate the work that they do with financial incentives. If employees feel that the financial gain does not compensate the work output that they give the company, chances are they will feel that the company does not recognize their efforts to help the business succeed. This attitude towards work and the company itself can result to a decrease in job performance.


            The case of some Nordstrom employees supports this point. Majority of the employees who stated that they are dissatisfied with the policies of the company claimed that the long hours of work are not fully compensated. The case of Patty Bemis, as presented in the case study, stated that she worked overtime to deliver cosmetics to customer and unpacking boxes of make-up. However, those hours that she worked were unpaid overtimes. The grueling hours became one of the factors that pushed Patty Bemis to leave Nordstrom for another job.


            Another hygiene factor mentioned is peer relationships.  Humans are social beings; they need to constantly see themselves on others to assure them that their experiences are not isolated and that others feel the same way they do. They need constant affirmation of the actions that they do.  This means that people develop interpersonal relationships. In turn, these relationships help them get by obstacles. In the workplace, employees need to develop harmonious relationships with their co-workers if they want to perform well in their jobs. 


            Another employee story presented in the case study was that of Lois Lucas. Her case stated that their manager had accused her and other employees of not being team players. This is a tough call especially in the Nordstrom working environment where affirmations are expected. The tension between employees and mangers often result to the decrease of job satisfaction since employees fail to realize their capabilities especially when their co-workers or superior gives them the feeling that they are not exerting efforts to excel even if they really are doing so.


            In conclusion, the presence of motivators and hygiene factors means that management must ensure that both factors are present in order to ensure the quality of performance that their employees provide.  This means that it is not enough that the level of employee dissatisfaction is low; employee satisfaction rating must also be high in order to maximize the potential of each employee.


Possible Cause of Perception Differences among Nordies


            In the case study that was the basis of this report, it was stated that employees received modest formal training upon being hired or promoted. Seasoned employees, through on-the-job communication, hand down the knowledge and skills of new hire and newly promoted employees. However, it is the case that people have different understanding or interpretation of the knowledge that they were able to acquire through the years. This means that the information that seasoned employees pass onto new hires may not be the perception that the company wished to inculcate to its personnel.        


            There are various reasons why employee training must take place. These reasons are closely linked to the company’s sustainability and profitability. According to Noe and Colquitt, training is being used to facilitate education (53).  In addition, training is also seen as a tool to retain employees, improve corporate culture and design incentive programs for employees (Tannenbaum 29). 


            The formation of the appropriate corporate culture is important. The beliefs and values dictates the business ethics of the organization as well as code of conduct of the members of the organization. Therefore, corporate culture also determines the human relationships formed within the organization including business and personal activities. The perception of truth and reality by the members of the organization and the organization itself is also created through the corporate culture.


            If the perception being handed down to new hires are different from the values and beliefs of the organization, then problems may arise. Every employee will be using their own interpretation to decode the policies of the company. Therefore, their understanding of the system will not be unified and thus the division of perception. This might very well be the case of Nordstrom. Due to the lack of formal training, employees were not properly educated about the culture of the company. The feeling of dissatisfaction may have been due to the different understanding of some employees regarding the policies of the company.


            A company must be unified by the desire of its employees to attain a certain goal that is also being shared by the whole organization. Through the collective understanding of the employees, they will be able to work together towards the realization of their goals. It is also the case that  training allows the organization to reiterate the importance of their mission or objectives. Through training employees will be able to familiarize themselves with the expectations of the company. They can also be motivated through training.


The results of training and development start a chain reaction.  When the company is able to produce effective employees then their profitability will increase.  When this happens, they will also be able to compensate their employees based on their contribution to the company’s growth.  In turn, it will create a feeling of satisfaction that will motivate them to improve further their efficiency and then the cycle will once again begin (Parker).




            In order to resolve the issue being faced by Nordstrom, it is being recommended that formal training be implemented especially for the new hires. New hires must be given importance when it comes to training programs since they basically know nothing about the company. If a business organization wants it employees to be accountable for their actions while working within the business organization, companies must make them feel that they are indeed part of the organization. Trainings are great opportunities to tell employees about the tradition of the company and how things are done within the organization.


            The training program to be implemented must give emphasis on the tradition of building lasting customer relations. This will allow the employees to understand the logic behind the need to go out of one’s way in order to please the customer. The training can incorporate the existing training program with the new one.


            For example, the existing training being given to new hires include practical issues such as scheduling, salary commissions and benefits. The new training program can be incorporated by relating the practical concerns with the benefits of creating lasting customer relations. It can be the case that the new training program state that an employee have the opportunity to receive higher commissions if more customers return to the store and purchase regularly.


            This can motivate the employees to start doing their best to ensure that customers see and feel the good shopping experience offered by the store and return. By making the employees see that the benefits they will be getting is worth their efforts then they will continue on with the Nordstrom tradition.


            In addition, trainings will allow the employees to master and put into practice the tradition of the company as the company intended it to be. A unified perception and understanding of the information will be achieved and thus the employees will be working with the same line of thinking which is to ensure the success of the business.

Tyler, the Creator Mountain Dew Ad: Critical Race Analysis

by Nex @ Media and Cultural Analysis, Spring 2014

In 2013, PepsiCo released a commercial for Mountain Dew as part of a series developed by African American rapper Tyler, the Creator. The ad immediately felt backfire as it was criticized for portraying racial stereotypes and making light of violence toward women. Using critical race analysis, I argue that the Mountain Dew commercial perpetuates african-american […]

Dove inspires India to “Break the Rules of Beauty”

Dove inspires India to “Break the Rules of Beauty”

Hindustan Unilever Limited website

Let’s break the rules of beauty


by (Sanjul Kumar) @ DOVE DEEP PURE FACE WASH

For any product in the market, product hierarchy follows a top down approach. It is developed from the basic need that prompts the customer to look out for a particular product to the final product.

During the course of satisfying this need the customer goes through the following:

  • Need or the requirement of a particular product to satisfy its need
  • The need is filtered towards a product family such as skin care, hair care, dental etc.
  •   Product class is next which can be called as the subset of the product family umbrella. E.g.  face wash under skin care.
  •  Product Line refers to the brand customer is looking for. Generally the customer looks out for a trusted brand
  •  Brand variant comes under product type which tells what kind of the product customer wants to  fulfil its requirement
  • .Finally we have the item which is the SKU or the final product variant of the brand.

According to Kotler, “The product hierarchy stretches from basic needs to particular items that satisfy those needs”.

 We can identify six levels of product hierarchy and trace the hierarch of the marketing diary product as follows:

1.      Need family
The customer figures out a need or requirement which sets out the customer on a mission to satisfy his requirement through various options. The core need underlies the existence of a product family.

In the product I have taken Dove Deep Pure face wash we can say that the need of personal hygiene specially for cleanliness of face which is the most noticeable part of a person’s body helped the customer to think in the direction of skin care for the face.

Need: Personal hygiene

2.      Product family
All product classes that can satisfy a core need with reasonable effectiveness. This primarily includes all the product classes that fall under the requirement.
With reference to personal hygiene like in case of Dove, we can consider product classes such as :
·         Skin care
·         Hair care

Family : Skin care

3.      Product class
A group of products within the product family recognized as having a certain functional coherence, also known as product category.

In case of Dove, which a big b

Class: Face wash

4.      Product line
A group of products within a product class that are closely related because they perform similar function, are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed through the same outlets or channels, or fall within given price ranges. A product line may consist of different brands, or a single family brand, or individual brand that has been line extended.

Line: Dove

5.      Product type
A group of items within a product line that share one of several possible forms of the product. It represents the product line along with the product class.

Type: Dove face wash (beauty face wash)

6.      Item
A distinct unit within a brand or product line distinguishable by size, price, appearance, or some other attribute. It is also called as the stock keeping unit SKU or the product variant.

Item: Dove Deep Pure face wash
Size:  50g
Price: Rs.90/-


A product system is a group of diverse but related items that function in a compatible manner. A product mix (also called a product assortment) is the set of all products and items a particular seller offers.

A company’s product mix has certain width, length, depth and consistency.

1.      Width
Refers to how many product lines a company carries.

Dove : skin care, hair therapy

2.      Length
Refers to total number of items in the mix.

Body wash, Body lotion, Face wash, Hair care

3.      Depth
How many variants are offered of each product in the line.

Product variants include Dove Deep Pure, Dove Go fresh, Dove pore cleaning, Dove anti acne.

4.      Consistency
How closely related the various product lines are in end use, production requirements, distribution channels, or some other way.


“If brands do decide to address gays, they don’t include lesbians”

by aufeminin @ Womenology

A meeting with Amandine Miguel, spokesperson for Inter LGBT, head of Lesbian Visibility What do you think of gay marketing (brands who particularly target the homosexual community)? Firstly, it is wrong to think that the “gay marketing” label includes all …

Continuer la lecture

The post “If brands do decide to address gays, they don’t include lesbians” appeared first on Womenology.

Commentaires sur « Facing the future »: the new issue of Marketing par Lho

by Lho @ Commentaires pour Womenology

Article très intéressant. Merci de nous faire partager ce type d’évènement. C'est très rafraîchissant!

Should your brand launch a youth sub-brand?

by Leonie Roderick @ Marketing Week

More companies are launching sub-brands to appeal to a younger demographic, but they would be wise to take a look at the parent brand instead.

The post Should your brand launch a youth sub-brand? appeared first on Marketing Week.

Stereotypical TV ads ‘causing resentment’ among consumers

by Leonie Roderick @ Marketing Week

TV advertising still relies too heavily on outdated stereotypes, new research suggests.

The post Stereotypical TV ads ‘causing resentment’ among consumers appeared first on Marketing Week.

The Best of Global Digital Marketing in Dhaka, Bangladesh

by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

26th September 2016

Beauty and sensuality are significant assets in the job market

by aufeminin @ Womenology

For some decades, studies have shown that people who are considered to be physically beautiful are at an advantage in a number of areas, both private and professional. Three recent books confirm this trend by showing that beauty has become …

Continuer la lecture

The post Beauty and sensuality are significant assets in the job market appeared first on Womenology.

5 killer stats to start your week

by Leonie Roderick @ Marketing Week

We arm you with all the stats you need to prepare for the coming week and help you understand the big industry trends.

The post 5 killer stats to start your week appeared first on Marketing Week.

Commentaires sur “Gender, Design and Marketing”, a book justifying marketing to women with biological arguments par Daniel

by Daniel @ Commentaires pour Womenology

Il y a en effet deux thèses qui cohabitent avec des arguments biologiques d'un côté et des arguments autour de l'éducation. Chez Womenology, nous pensons que les deux thèses sont justes et ne sont pas contradictoires car les différences sont à la fois biologiques et sociétales.

How Cancer Research UK is preparing for GDPR

by Sarah Vizard @ Marketing Week

In the first of a new series on how marketers are approaching the new EU data regulations, we talk to Cancer Research UK about its preparations and the opportunities around GDPR.

The post How Cancer Research UK is preparing for GDPR appeared first on Marketing Week.

Dove’s “Real Beauty” Campaign: Successfull Marketing that Failed to Redefine Beauty

Dove’s “Real Beauty” Campaign: Successfull Marketing that Failed to Redefine Beauty

by lauraalfonso @ Critical Analysis Essay- UNIV 200 What does beauty mean? The answer to this question may depend on many variables. The interpretation of beauty is subjective to various factors, such as culture, age,...

Meet our 2017 Interns!

by Schneider Associates @ Schneider Associates

This summer, we had seven wonderful interns join the team at Schneider Associates! Each offered something special to SA and we’re amazed at how they hit the ground running. Get to know more about them and the impact they’re having on the world of public relations and marketing! Julia Ferreira Where are you from? Hamilton, MA Where do (or did) you […]

The post Meet our 2017 Interns! appeared first on Schneider Associates.

Dove SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

Dove SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

SWOT analysis of Dove is covered on this page along with its segmentation, targeting & positioning (STP). Analysis of Dove also covers its USP, tagline / slogan and competitors.

The Best of Global Digital Marketing in Istanbul, Turkey

by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

4th May 2016 In cooperation with IAB Turkey

Commentaires sur Pampers Village, an online community for parents par Les femmes consomment différemment durant leur grossesse | Womenology - Gender marketing lab

by Les femmes consomment différemment durant leur grossesse | Womenology - Gender marketing lab @ Commentaires pour Womenology

[...] Pampers a, précisément pour cette raison, créé son propre site à destination des mères, Pampers Village : il propose des contenus pratiques et des espaces de discussion, à la manière d’une [...]

Hack your commute: Don’t buy into brain training

by Michael Barnett @ Marketing Week

Marketing Week’s ‘Hack your commute’ series uncovers inspiring and fulfilling ways to spend your journeys to and from work that will expand your mind and broaden your horizons.

The post Hack your commute: Don’t buy into brain training appeared first on Marketing Week.

Marketoonist on PowerPoint pitches

by Tom Fishburne @ Marketing Week

Tom Fishburne is founder of Marketoon Studios. Follow his work at or on Twitter @tomfishburne See more of the Marketoonist here Tom Fishburne will be speaking at the Festival of Marketing, which is taking place on 4 and 5 October at Tobacco Dock. To find out more information, including how to book tickets, visit […]

The post Marketoonist on PowerPoint pitches appeared first on Marketing Week.

The Best of Global Digital Marketing in Warsaw, Poland

by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

26th April 2016 In cooperation with

Strategic Marketing Management: The Case for UBS

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

The Case for UBS Implementing a New Marketing Strategy

The sixth largest bank in the world-famous in investment banking, wealth and asset management is drastically degenerating tolow keys. Consequently, the imperative campaign to restructure branding management strategy for UBS is critical to its long term survival and stability in the face of stringent global competition.  Sifting through the troubling challenges from the remnant effects the recent, magnified fiasco have caused with US tax authorities in the tax evasion case against US investors on respective individual investments, by which the bank allegedly kept its tax haven niche on their behalf, links to cause the institution to resilience to regress its usually strong position in the markets. The challenge moreover underlies the flaws  bank secrecy effectuate to abide with integrity on international taxation compliance as a universal norm since Swiss laws do not find the need to disclose assets as  culture influence dictates this norm and is not regarded as a criminal act. However, nevertheless, the United States is a major superpower who wields the clout on a global scale and is a potential to divest the bank’s interests that may risk UBS to maintain global scale trust. Research by Morrison and Foerster (2011) reveal the bank’s involvement in other institutional disputes placing public trust at stake when US based Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) filed a lawsuit against the conglomerate with large scale amounts in restitution and penalties to investors for producing misleading statements and omissions in connection to offerings on risk free principals through principal protected notes. Consequently, the large scale clout by media coverage globally blurred UBS in its overall global strategicposition among the investing public and a class action litigation resulting to rank demotion in global financial services in the face of stiff global competition.

Furthermore to impose the following recommendations that will enable UBS from its current global market position is critical to repave into recovery:

Reposition to Implement a Renewed Strategy:  While UBS hovers in the global realignment phase to recover public trust, it should reemphasize competitive position in the global financial industry not only focus to promote on more intensive and wider scale coverage of strengths on critical clientele based infrastructures in retail investment banking, wealth and asset management through massive campaigns on brand management  While the institution recognizes this expertise as a current deficiency, sheering to competitive positions and advantages over the financial services industry that places them to an edge to entail a strategic position in target markets is necessary. Brand communication is an alternative key to compensate with collective restitution to the investor public on institutional shortcomings from the scandals caused. One way to demonstrate this bears on the advantage in offering competitive and low interest rates as a promotion mechanism to various investment packages while its corporate position is blurred with clarity, impact, and focus on target markets (World Advertising Research, 2004, p.3). Positioning on this strategic stance renders the substantial advantage while target markets are not within reach the adversaries may cause a negative impact. The overall communication strategy should focus to implement a persuasive language in its propaganda as the key element to cohere to the public vital tenets in upbringing conviction on brand communication strategy incorporating the resolution to an extensive domain to cohesive corporate policy compliance to compensate past institutional flaws in its long term marketing portfolio. This strategy should communicate top down to lower hierarchies which partly function as the source niches involving the disputes. This is the most effective way to establish a unique brand identity in certain clientele segments that align the market (World Advertising Research, 2004, p. 3). To resort to an impartial corporate audit policy and compliance plan implementing down to departmental levels should pattern after this strategic marketing to assure policy assurance on all corners of the corporate structure.

Incorporate Stakeholder Participation: The issue with the United States on taxation interests on the claims on investments US investors own violating the bank secrecy law may hold valid but calls the need to incorporate stakeholders or investors to stay informed on the any surfacing issue that impact investments on a periodical basis. This claim attributes to a complex network consequence inevitably wrought from an international marketing strategy approach deriving income dividends from these investments which become the object for national authorities to claim sovereign interest as a right rather an option. Should investors or the company either way initiate triad communication from the onset without jeopardizing not only the bank secrecy law but save an actively implemented marketing strategy with all parties informed to encourage investment flows without  penalty costs the lawsuit incurred and would have prevented to loom the dispute. Whether directly or indirectly such investors intend to conceal taxes through the secrecy law would enable stakeholders or investors to understand the complex consequences which pervasive risks may reach, to strategically devise and implement a plan to position to minimize or evade the risks involved while meeting shareholder expectations (Doole and Lowe, 2008, p.49). This is true especially on the implications the FINRA case may assert in other potential claims that may result to relevant consequences and beyond relating to Treasury Inflation Protection Securities (TIPS) by which profits from volatility action may reach beyond break-even levels even at-the-money levels within TIPS that interpret to be taking at premium, thus no actual profit is realized but claimable by tax to the United States.  UBS management should incorporate TIPS in shareholder discussions on this issue a misinterpretation to resolve since this may uphold otherwise the potential source for future disputes and attract inflation concerns among investors (Lupoli, 2010, p.8).



Strategic Management of British Airways Company

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Strategic Management of British Airways Company



            Transportation plays an essential role to the success of many businesses and organizations. Without efficient transportation, many supplies and raw materials will not be brought from one place to another. It has been reported that humans have always needed to get around from place to place, making the act of walking a limitation on the distance traveled and the things they could carry. Consider the innovations that help humans travel around and transport cargo, including automobiles, ships, and airplanes (2006). Through these innovations, humans were able to effectively and efficiently move from one place to the next with the convenience of bringing luggage and cargo.

Today, through transportation, humans were able to make trade relations with one another. Many business organizations make it a point to travel to different cities and countries to promote their products and services. Traveling and promotion are now part of an organization’s strategic management. From this, airlines play a major importance in the success of business organizations around the world. Business organizations are able to widen their market by traveling to different places via the airlines. Their importance leads us to evaluate their strategies in dealing with their business. This paper aims to discuss the strategic management of a specific airline company and assess its effectiveness in the business.


British Airways Airline Company

            It has been reported that the British Airways is the largest airline of the United Kingdom and one of the largest in the world, with more flights from Europe across the Atlantic than any other operator ( 2006). British Airways flies to over 550 destinations and to more than 130 countries worldwide, including London, major European centers such as Paris and Frankfurt, and Asian hubs like Hong Kong, Singapore and Bangkok (2005). This airline is synonymous with excellent service and quality and has always been regarded as a leader in the airline industry, and serves more than 35 million passengers annually. Its history traces back to 1924 when the five small British independent airlines merged under state guidance to form Imperial Airways. At present, British Airways operates out of London’s two main ports, namely Heathrow, which is the world’s largest international airport, and Gatwick (2005).

            For its travel classes, the British Airways offers four cabins. The first cabin is complete with fully flat seats, each in its own cocoon-style area with a seat for a companion to join the passenger for meals or for a chat. The second cabin is called the Club World, having flat bed sleeper seats. The third cabin is the World Traveller Plus, a premium economy services, offering more room in-flight and dedicated check-in desks, and the last cabin is the World Traveller, which is the airline’s economy, or coach class ( 2006).   


Strategy Review of the British Airways

            Strategic management is that set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of a corporation, and includes aspects such as environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and evaluation and control ( 2006). Strategic management is important for every business, as it determines its success in the market, in its formulation and implementation of projects. One of the strategies of airlines is alliances or merges. Alliancing in airline industry seems persistent, as every international airline is forging alliances of some form, which can be traced as far back as the 1940s (2004). From a strategic perspective, airline alliances have become an inherent part of the task environment of airlines (2004). Alliances are beneficial for airlines in its control and maintenance on the business. Similarly, this strategy was adopted by the British Airways for better service. On March 31, 1924, Britain’s four airlines, namely, Instone, Handley Page, Daimler Airways, and British Air Marine Navigation merged to form Imperial Airways (2006b). However, during this time a number of smaller UK airline companies had started their operations, so in 1935, these airlines merged to form the original privately owned British Airways Ltd. The British Government in 1939 nationalized the airlines and after the Second World War, the airlines were combined to form the British Airways in 1974 (2006b). The driving factor behind alliances is long-term profitability, and their formation tends to be for strategic reasons, such as accessing larger markets, establishing global brand loyalty and building hub-to-hub traffic (1998). This move is advantageous for the airline to service more passengers and establish market reputation. Alliances or merges are part their strategic management plan, as being part of the strategy formulation and implementation. Strategy formulation and implementation is an on-going, never-ending, integrated process requiring continuous reassessment and reformation, is dynamic, and involves a complex pattern of actions and reactions ( 2006). Being dynamic, airlines tend to always innovate and improve their actions to further enhance the quality of their service.

            In addition, another way for the British Airways to cope with serious competition from other airlines, it continuously provides itself changes and innovation for better services. Strategic management, having its characteristic of being dynamic and complex, enables the British Airways to accommodate change. This change is done by improving the amenities of the airlines and developing new information systems as added services. It remains to be the world’s international airline and the first airline to offer jet passenger services, the first to operate weather-beating auto landings, the first to offer supersonic passenger services, and the first in the modern era to offer fully-flat beds (2006c). Due to the mentioned services, the British Airways were able to build a good reputation in the market and gain the trust of many customers. These has widened their industry and made the airlines to be “the world’s most favorite airline”.


Core Business

             British Airways is based at London Heathrow Airport in London, England, and has a commanding presence at Gatwick and Manchester International Airport. It has succeeded in dominating Heathrow to the point that the airport is commonly referred to as Fortress Heathrow within both the airline and its competitors (2006a). It serves flights to destinations in the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, India, France, Germany and other major countries around the world.

            Currently, British Airways has a modern fleet with an average age of 9.7 years, and consists of Airbus A319-100, A320-100, A320-200, Boeing 737-300, 737-400, 737-500, 747-400, 757-200, 767-300ER, 777-200, and 777-200ER (2006b). The type of aircraft, aircraft number, capacity and destinations are shown in the table.






Airbus A319-100



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Airbus A320-100



Being replaced by Boeing 737-500

Airbus A320-200

(7 on order)


Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Airbus A321-200

(3 on order)


Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 737-300



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 737-400



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 737-500



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 747-400



Long haul international routes

Boeing 757-200



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 767-300ER



Long haul and short haul routes to the Caribbean, the USA and Europe

Boeing 777-200



Long haul routes

Boeing 777-200ER



Long haul routes

From ( 2006a)


            Moreover, the British Airways have franchises from other airlines including the British Mediterranean Airways since 1997, the COM air in South Africa since 1996, the GB Airways of UK since 1995, the Loganair in UK since 1994, and the Sun Air in Denmark since 1996 (2006a). Due to these alliances, the British Airways were able to produce large sum of profits, shown in the table below.


Year ended

Passengers flown [4]

Turnover (£m)

Profit/loss before tax (£m)

Net profit/loss (£m)

Basic eps (p)

31 March 2006






31 March 2005






31 March 2004






31 March 2003






31 March 2002






31 March 2001






31 March 2000






31 March 1999






31 March 1998






31 March 1997






31 March 1996






From (‘British Airways’ 2006a)


Strategic Changes

            Demand for air travel has declined since four planes were hijacked and used to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The world’s favorite airline, the British Airways, is one of the airlines that have been forced to cut jobs and routes ( 2001). Due to the incident, more problems bombard the company, such as the global slowdown in the travel industry, the lower demand for bookings, fuel costs rise sharply, insurance costs going up, and higher airport taxes ( 2001). From these obstacles, the company saw the need for strategic changes in attracting the market.

            As a solution to this decline, the airline offered improved amenities, including sleeper seats, in an attempt to lure business travelers at the expense of economy class customers ( 2001). It has unveiled £600 million worth of new customer services and products, which is the biggest investment of its kind in airline history, including flat beds in its ‘Club World’ long haul business cabin. Furthermore, the airline has added legroom in its ‘World Traveller Plus’ section. With this sections, British Airways passengers can now upgrade from traditional economy on extended flights without paying for a Club ticket (  2005).

            In addition, due to the arising problems in the company, the president, Bob Ayling attempted to have a merger with American Airlines, but failed due to regulatory problems ( 2001). With this, different presidents of the company did many more attempts to revive its reputation and decreasing performance.

            Moreover, in 2005, Cisco Systems and Prime Business Solutions announced a major network convergence project for British Airways to improve its communications for 14,000 offices and airport staffs. This project marks the sale of Cisco’s five millionth Internet Protocol (IP) telephone system, which is being developed and implemented by Cisco Gold Certified Partner, Prime, and will be the largest of its kind in the airline industry worldwide ( 2005). This improvement in the system of British Airways reduces costs and improves productivity through the integration of all voice and data communications onto a single network. It allows British Airways to remove the cost of inter-office telephone calls and will streamline the management and provisioning of telephony services throughout the company ( 2005). Furthermore, the networked capabilities of Cisco’s IP phone system will make the relocation of communications services quicker and easier (  2005). With this advantage, British Airways deployed 8,500 Cisco IP phone system to the company, and the project was completed in March 2006 ( 2005).



            The role of British Airways in the transportation industry is an important factor for many business organizations. With this, it is necessary to conclude that the British Airways continue to improve their innovations and systems as their strategies of developing their company. These are in accordance to their aim of increasing their profit and for rendering better services to their customers. With better services, the company can persist on maintaining their established reputation and image to their market. With their strategies, such as the mergers, and improvement of amenities and services, the company can attract more customers and can guarantee more improved service to many passengers and airline staff. These would not only generate more profit and prestige for the airline company, but would also foster harmony and good working environment for each employee. Continuous innovation and improvement in British Airways can sometimes produce problems, but with good leadership and company maintenance, development can be achieved properly and efficiently.

Bonus Videos: Overcoming Marketing Innovation Anxiety

by Lisa Nirell @ EnergizeGrowth

What is marketing innovation anxiety? It happens when we keep postponing innovation conversations and initiatives. Unfortunately, in Western cultures, most of us believe that looking busy is a badge of honor, so we default to the familiar—managing our daily problem inbox. My curiosity around marketing innovation anxiety, and the lack of a true commitment to […]

The post Bonus Videos: Overcoming Marketing Innovation Anxiety appeared first on EnergizeGrowth.

A More Natural Beauty

by (Kayla D) @ An Analysis of Dove's "Campaign for Real Beauty"

Dove’s mission is to make morewomen feel beautiful every day by widening the stereotypical view of beauty andinspiring women to take great care of themselves. Dove’s lotion firming ad has six diverse women posing together in a very confident way. These women are posing in their undergarments making it seem like they have a high self-esteem about their natural womanly curves. All these women seem to have been selected from those in an everyday society instead of celebrities. Is the message these advertisers trying to send going to leave a positive influence on members of society or can they portray a more natural beauty?
            This ad by Dove strictly targets their viewers’ emotional appeals in several ways. First off there is no distracting background colors or objects in the ad so that the viewers’ focus is solely on the appearance of the women. The only thing that Dove has included in the ad is their logo, their slogan, “New DoveFirming. As tested on real curves” and a picture of the lotion line that they sell. The color white is used to symbolize that with Dove you can look forward to a brighter future. The image is also taken from a long distance in order to show the whole body image of the individuals and their natural curves. This leaves the audience to think that their curves could be just as beautiful if they were to try Dove’s lotion products. The orientation of the ad is also set up in a front view perspective to put an emphasis on the body image and facial expressions of each of the women. In order to draw focus to the women each of them are looking directly at the camera so they can imply a sense of power to their audience. The ad includes women who come from all different ethnicities in life so that the viewer can see that beauty is universal and comes in all different forms. Although the ad focuses on the element of universal beauty, they fail to put their focus on inner beauty and seem to focus just on the outer beauty. Finally, the use of little clothing implies sexiness and can leave the viewer wishing they could also feel that way in little clothing. Many of the elements in this ad will have a strong emotional appeal to their audience.  
            Since today’s media ads are heavily focused on supermodel like qualities it targets females and makes them feel as if that’s how they need to look. However, for this ad Dove used the average woman diminishing this feeling of their viewers. This demonstrates the use of pathos by Dove’s ad. With this ad, Dove tries to send the message that not all women have to have impeccable bodies and that the physical features they attain are beautiful. I think that Dove wants women to know that they make products for all types of women and it can help to restore and attain their beauty. The use of pathos is also seen in how the women are depicted in the image. Every one of them is shown with a bright and confident smile while comfortably posing in their own skin. With these women, showing self-confidence and joy it influences the viewers’ to want to feel this way to. The viewers’ want to feel as if they can be accepted into a group of such confident women. With these women, just wearing undergarments they remain satisfied with their body image and sexuality. This implies to the viewers’ that there are not afraid to show their real physical appearances’ and makes the viewer want to feel sexy in their own body as well. It is not surprising that women want to be slender and beautiful, because as a society “we know more aboutwomen who look good than we know about women who do good,” says former teen model Audrey Brashich. 
            While looking at this ad from Dove I think it is important for one to evaluate the way Dove has changed their ads to try to leave a more positive impact on society. One can see the use of ethos in this ad and how Dove is trying to heighten their reputation. I think that with this ad Dove is sending the message that one does not have to have supermodel qualities to feel beautiful in their own skin. They are trying to promote that women come in different shapes, sizes, and skin colors. Dove has begun to think outside of the box of average media by using more realistic and average women for their campaigns, since Dove has altered the use of their images they are building a better foundation for the reputation of their company. They know that the average women in today’s society will appreciate the fact that their ads are not based off what the media projects as beautiful.  Instead, they use an average woman with a curvy and thick figure. Kelly Cutrone owner of Peoples’ Revolution states, “models will become heavier if that’s whatconsumers demand and if people decide thin is out, the fashion industry won’thave thin models anymore.” Simply changing an element like this has an impact on women and leaves women to believe Dove is a honorable and ethical company that is truly concerned  about their viewers’ and not just making money off them as a consumer. This also leaves them to believe that Dove is trustworthy and that they will provide good effective products.  
            Ultimately, if Dove continues to change their focal points and continues to move away from the media perception of beauty they will be able to send a positive message and convey a more natural beauty. Although a lot of work needs to be done to achieve this goal, I believe that they have a good start on it through their use of ethos and pathos.

Thomas Barta: Marketers must stop being digitally naïve

by Thomas Barta @ Marketing Week

The label 'digital' makes marketers throw all leadership rules overboard. They shouldn’t.

The post Thomas Barta: Marketers must stop being digitally naïve appeared first on Marketing Week.

Always vs. Dove: Viral Video Success Doesn't Mean YouTube Success

Always vs. Dove: Viral Video Success Doesn't Mean YouTube Success

Tubular Insights

Two big brands, Dove and Always, launched well-publicized campaigns on YouTube, but did they succeed in growing the reach of their respective YouTube channels?

John Lewis says Christmas offer must be ‘irresistible’ amid weaker consumer demand

by Thomas Hobbs @ Marketing Week

The retail giant says consumer demand for big-ticket purchases is now ‘more difficult', putting more pressure on the John Lewis Christmas campaign to succeed.

The post John Lewis says Christmas offer must be ‘irresistible’ amid weaker consumer demand appeared first on Marketing Week.

Career Management

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Career Management

            Currently, the labor market has becoming more and more competitive. Job seekers should have the intelligence to manage their career in order for them to have their goals achieved. In addition, with today’s actively changing business landscape, businesses are also becoming more complex with the advancing of technology.

In the current economic environment, education is becoming increasingly critical to career success. Therefore, the emphasis on life-long learning and personal development, whether formal through organized seminars, or informal through reading and self-learning, is vital to promote a learning attitude that will continually develop new skills and acquire new knowledge.

            In this more competitive labor market, employees have to have also the competitive edge to cope with the dynamic change in the market. Businesses today seek for more flexible staff and with more technical knowledge. Employees have no choice but to constantly increase their technical knowledge to be more flexible.

In connection with is, employees must also be able to apply these technical knowledge and skills to handle an increasingly diverse, non-routine set of situation and events to be more effective in the workplace and to satisfy customer and organizational needs.

According to  (2000), employees must continually commit themselves to learning to enhance their knowledge and to increase their skills. Moreover, he enumerated some real challenges for today’s employees. These include the following:

1.                          Responding and coping with new and rapidly changing business environment and organizational structures.

2.                          Gathering and digesting more timely and relevant information.

3.                          Handling technology and e-commerce.

4.                          Quality – getting it right first time.


According to  (2000), job skills will continue to increase exponentially and not in a linear pattern, leaving those individuals who fail to adequately prepare and develop themselves continually out-of-work or with no opportunities for growth and professional development.

With these challenges, career management becomes more critical in today’s world for everyone at all levels in the organization. In the past it was important however in today’s dynamic market, career management become more an essential. Career management is drastically different today than in the last decade.

Career management is changing due to the change in the nature of career. The nature of careers is being affected radically by:

1.      Economic changes displacing large numbers of employees from old to new forms of employment, and frequently leading to reduced employment status for those whose skills are obsolete and who are unable to adapt to new businesses

2.      New technology resulting in the automation of formerly labor intensive processes, improved communication and information, and the growth of new kinds of organizations, occupations and jobs

3.      Changes in business culture ranging from privatization, with resultant pressures for new forms of regulation, to changes in organizational practices (such as refocusing around core business activities) have raised awareness of corporate culture as a source of strength, resourcefulness and flexibility

In addition, according to  (1997), much of these changes can be attributed to the new contract between employer and employee. Part of this paradigm shift affects careers. It is no longer the company’s responsibility to manage our careers. This responsibility falls to each of you.

Career management has been complicated by the current trends in restructuring, downsizing, rightsizing and outsourcing. Traditional upward mobility is no longer available and gone is the fast track. Today’s career progression is a complex maze of crisscrosses and lateral moves.

The traditional, vertical career path was straightforward with little guess work. Today’s career paths are not so straightforward. Some are known as the network career path (with horizontal and vertical movement), the lateral skill path (with horizontal movement), and the dual career path (with movement for experts on the technical side of the business not desiring managerial positions).

With the loss of the traditional, upward career path, organizations have developed alternatives to help employees. Two such alternatives are formal job revitalization and broad banding. Companies are attempting to “spice up” employees’ jobs where promotions are not possible with job revitalization. Broad banding gives organizations an opportunity to increase an employee’s compensation without an upward move. Both of these methods, however, require that the employee contribute more to the organization and acquire new skills. The key is to recognize the need for transferable skills as well as the imperative to continually be adding value to your position and to your organization.

According to  (1997), career management does not just happen. Careers must be carefully managed. Determining where you are going and outlining a strategy whereby you can get there are some of the certain steps to manage careers.

Career management is the process by which career goals are met. This requires, then, that you set career goals and objectives. You need to know where you are going to know how to set your course.

            This paper focuses its discussion on the career management of top executives. This paper attempts to analyze the labor market of top executives and identifying their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats they face in pursue of their careers. Included also is an updated personal development plan or CV.


Career Management Portfolio

Labor Market Analysis

            Top executives are expected to have keen competition because of the prestige and high pay attract a large number of qualified applicants. Top executives are among the highest paid workers; however, part of their job is working long hours, considerable travel, and intense pressure to succeed.

The nature of their work is to strive to meet their organizations goals and objectives. Top executives devise strategies and formulate policies to ensure that these objectives are met. Long hours including evenings and weekends are standard for most top executives although their schedules are flexible. Substantial travel between international, national, regional, and local offices to monitor operations and meet with customers, staff, and other executives often is required of managers and executives.

Many managers and executives also attend meetings and conferences sponsored by various associations. The conferences provide an opportunity to meet with prospective donors, customers, contractors, or government officials and allow managers and executives to keep abreast of technological and managerial innovations. Top executives are under intense pressure to succeed; depending on the organization, this may mean earning higher profits, providing better service, or attaining fundraising and charitable goals. Executives in charge of poorly performing organizations or departments usually find their jobs in jeopardy.

Top executives must have highly developed personal skills. An analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important, as is the ability to consider and evaluate the relationships between numerous factors. Top executives also must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively. Other qualities critical for managerial success include leadership, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexibility, sound business judgment, and determination. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company training programs that impart a broader knowledge of company policy and operations.

It is expected that the position of the top executives are of the most competition due to its prestige and high salary. It is expected that many applicants who are qualified are attracted with the offer especially on the large companies. Because this is a large occupation, numerous openings will occur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. However, many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other executive positions, a pattern that tends to limit the number of job openings for new entrants.

According to a survey by independent Remuneration Solutions and Manifest, although rises in total pay for top executives slowed sharply, it is still rising faster than average earnings and three times the rate of inflation (2006).

Total pay, including base salaries, bonuses and the expected value of long-term incentive plans, rose 9 per cent to a median of £2.1m for chief executives of large companies last year. This compares with compound growth of 19 per cent a year for eight years or a total rise of 230 per cent since 1998. Over the same period, average earnings rose 38 per cent and the FTSE100 grew 4 per cent ( 2006).

Use of bonuses, options and particularly long-term incentive plans have risen faster than base salaries. Performance-based awards now make up more than three-quarters of total remuneration for the average FTSE 100 CEO. Total pay at smaller companies rose just 6 per cent, according to a survey of 235 companies who have reported since January 1 ( 2006).

            In connection, according to Rick Slayton, there is a rising demand for top executives. He notes that “The supply and demand dynamics have given high performing executives more career options than they’ve had in years.”

There have been challenges in which top executives faces with the changes in the current economic environment. Technological advances, changes in social behavior, demographic shifts and economic conditions are driving fundamental changes in the structure of the labor market and the playing field on which we compete for labor. Our competitiveness with other employers is affected by general labor market forces.


However, according to  (2006), the supply and demand dynamics have given high performing executives more career options. Slayton points out that there is a rising demand for top executives. Slayton also points out recent studies documenting an increase in executive job transition and moves by employers to change their pay practices to match a more competitive job market.  (2006) commented that candidates as a general rule have more power today.

For much of the past five years, employers were holding the cards in the executive employment market, because new opportunities were scarce. But today, it’s clear that the pendulum of the executive employment market has moved way over to the candidate or seller side. The bargaining advantage has shifted substantially beyond equilibrium in favor of the top candidates.

Slayton suggested that recruiting season will keep corporate recruiters and executive search firms busy trying to market compelling opportunities to top management talent. According to him corporate employers will continue to  place a premium on the right mix of professional experience, advanced education, a track record of consistent performance and successive promotions and executive presence.

Slayton notes an increasing number of executive job candidates are rejecting any company rumored to have a tyrannical CEO, high executive turnover, and/or business practices that might remotely evolve into corporate scandal. He advises employers not to underestimate the importance of their reputation, their brand, and their overall workplace experience and corporate mission, because top caliber management candidates are usually motivated by the challenge of a new job with a growth-oriented employer.

Slayton concluded that “any company that can’t effectively articulate its vision for the future and a compelling employment proposition for world-class management executives will find its ability to recruit diminished or hampered until that changes.” Executives are increasingly opting to transfer to another company if the offer there is better.

Executives have to learn how to manage their career well because they have become as vulnerable to unemployment as lower-ranking individuals. Executives preparing to be interviewed for a new job should make sure that they have certain qualities that will increase their chances of being selected for the position.

Executives today face a different playing field than their predecessors. Before downsizing and restructuring, corporations sought lifetime employees whose commitment to the company was paramount. In turn, executives trusted their employers to develop their careers and protect their tenures. However, as change has become an accepted fact of life and re-engineering is no longer an emergency exercise, top executives are ever more likely to be blasted into the ranks of the unemployed with no safety net. It could happen more than once.

Effective executive should executive presence, stature or social poise, ability to focus, charisma, ability to articulate, and hands-on management capabilities.

Executive presence is hard to define but clients “know it when they see it.” Managers with executive presence speak without a significant regional accent and use strategic silences to appear thoughtful. Grooming such as men with dark, expensive suit, white shirt with French cuffs, Hermes-type tie, manicured fingernails; and women with dark suit or dress, high-quality accessories and jewelry is an important aspect of executive presence.

An executive should be a top communicator. A top communicator must have stature, or social poise. Executives who have it are always onstage but never pretentious. They arrive on time and move crisply, but gracefully. They make the first move to shake hands

The ability to focus is a key element of stature. Top communication executives are always balancing scores of issues, projects, personalities and outcomes. But when they handle one, they give it 100 percent of their attention. They lean forward slightly when they sit – a mark of attentiveness – and they listen carefully.

In addition, executive should be articulate. Communication professionals know that how you say it is often more important than what you say. Articulate executives don’t simply speak clearly. They also respond with a framework for an answer rather than answering questions directly. Articulate executives speak in bullet points and avoid larding their conversations with jargon. The ability to explain a complex issue in simple language is something clients always look for in personal interviews.

An executive’s charisma refers mainly to his or her ability to appear interested, caring and concerned.  Charismatic executives usually like to have people around them and mention others in conversation. They walk the halls of their companies and they chat easily with employees at all levels.

While it’s difficult to assess charisma in a one-on-one interview, recruiters look for subtle cues like giving credit to team members or subordinates. Optimism is also a strong predictor of charisma. When one of our top candidates spent more than half an interview complaining about her current boss and her company’s misguided strategy, she fell to the bottom of the list.

Finally, hands-on executives can do the job that they are managing other people to do. Thriving in a team-oriented environment, they avoid excessive delegation. To be “close to the action,” they meet with customers regularly, use computers extensively, place their own phone calls and sometimes fly coach. Sometimes it’s difficult to find a hands-on executive who has executive presence, but they do exist.

In an age of constant change and declining corporate loyalty, communication professionals can build and strengthen their career clout by taking responsibility for their own job progressions, planning to change jobs every two to four years, and honing their interpersonal skills. If your current employer can’t or won’t help you polish your knowledge base and experience, find one that will. Survival is up to you – not the company.


Personal Development Plan

Strengths and Weaknesses

1. Areas which needs development


2. Strengths

Area of Focus

            The area of focus is mainly on the area which needs development.

  • Encourage innovation

  • Excellent performance in this area results in being able to:

    • Ensure that there is a well communicated innovation strategy that fits with the overall vision of the business

    • Motivate people across the business to identify areas for new products or services.

    • Ensure the resources, particularly the time, and made available for idea generation, development and testing of ideas

    • Evaluate business cases and plans, approve those that appear viable and monitor their progress

    • ensure that the originators and developers of any ideas receive recognition for their achievement


  • Plan change

  • Excellent performance in this area results in being able to:

    • assess the gap between the current and required future state of procedures, systems, structures and roles

    • assess the risks and benefits associated with your strategies and plans and develop contingency arrangements

    • make sure your plans include short-term “wins” as well as longer-term deliverables

    • develop systems for monitoring and assessing progress

    • develop a communication strategy that allows people to give feedback

    • identify training and support needs and plan how to meet these



  • Lead Change

  • Excellent performance in this area results in being able to:

    • Communicate vision for the future, the reason for change and the benefits to everyone

    • Make sure people responsible for planning and implementing change understand their responsibilities

    • Set and prioritize objectives for the change

    • Identify strategies for achieving the vision and communicate them clearly to everyone involved

    • Communicate progress to everyone involve and celebrate achievement

    • Identify and deal with obstacles to change


  • Make a program of projects

  • Excellent performance in this area will result to:

    • Make sure everyone involved is clear about how the program links to strategic targets

    • Take account of all essential needs and translate strategic targets into practical, efficient and effective actions

    • Make sure everyone involved understands the critical aspects of the program and arrangement for dealing with contingencies

    • Monitor and control the program so that it achieves the stated objectives on time and within budget

    • Make recommendations

    • Tell the important issues and the results of putting the program into practice


  • Implement Change

  • Excellent performance of this area will result to:

    • Create a vision of where you area is going

    • Communicate regularly

    • Create a range of leadership styles and apply them to appropriate situation and people

    • Give people support and advice

    • Encourage people to take a lead in their own area of expertise













    Action Plan

                The following plan includes the actions selected and the suggested resources and time frame.




    Time Frame


    Encourage innovation

    Find local courses about encouraging innovation

    Complete within 3 months



    Plan Change

    Find local courses about planning change

    Complete in 3 months


    Lead change

    Find local courses of planning change

    Complete within 6 months


    Manage program of projects

    Find local courses about managing program of projects

    Complete within 9 months


    Implement change

    Find local courses about implementing change

    Complete within 12 months








    Effect of Laws, Regulations and Security Procedures on the Economic Performance of Saudi’s Portsn

    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics



                Saudi Arabia is the biggest country in the Arabian Peninsula comprising eighty percent of the geographic area. Bodies of water bound the country on the east and west and by neighboring countries to the north and south. Since the discovery of oil in the early 1930s, propelling the country as one of the significant suppliers of oil in the international market, the development of ports in the country’s waterfronts were instrumental in the trade of oil. The establishment of ports made it possible for Saudi Arabia to build industries required in trading oil particularly the shipping industry.

                Since Saudi Arabia is the leading exporter of petroleum products, it played a significant role in establishing the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). As of 2003, Saudi Arabia reported control of twenty-four percent of the known world petroleum reserves or 260.1 billion barrels and its oil export capacity increases with the discovery of new oil fields. Petroleum industry accounts for around seventy-five percent of aggregate revenue, forty percent of gross domestic product and ninety percent of earnings derived from exports. The importance of the petroleum industry to Saudi Arabia necessitated the development of fully functional and efficient ports. At present, Saudi Arabia has established eight ports to cater to its massive trading activities.

                Saudi Arabia became a member of the World Trade Organization in December 2005. Preparatory to free trade, the country commenced the privatization of different industries in the late 1990s including its ports. Although ownership of ports still remain with the government, the private sector is given investment options in different areas to upgrade port facilities and services to compete with other ports in the region and comply with international standards. In 1997, the Ports Authority offered the ports, six commercial and two industrial ports, to the private sector through public bidding and prior to its membership in the WTO all ports were already operated and managed by the private sector.

                Competitiveness of Saudi’s ports in the world market requires compliance with international standards. Standards are provided by the agreements or contracts that the ports have entered into through membership in the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and other regional economic cooperation and the laws, regulations and port control or security procedures applicable in the international, regional and domestic sphere. These legal factors influence the economic performance of the different ports in Saudi Arabia.

                The paper will discuss the different international and national laws as well as the different port control regulations applicable to Saudi’s ports and determine the manner and extent that the various laws and regulations influence the economic performance of the different ports.    

    Background of the Study

                It is recognized that law plays a significant role in the economic performance of states. This is because the legal environment constitutes a factor that affects the operations of businesses. Several approaches measure the extent and quality of influence that laws have on economic development. One approach is to consider laws based on the books. This means that the key indicators of a law are determined and the presence of these indicators are observed in a given economy. The presence or absence of any or some of these indicators then explains the influence that the law has on economic performance. This also requires looking into the purpose of laws and determining whether the purpose has been fulfilled by the presence or absence of the legal elements in the economy.  In relation to port control, the elements and purpose of provisions of admiralty or maritime that relate to port operations are determined. After which an assessment will be made on the existence of these elements in the port industry in Saudi Arabia. Issues surrounding the implementation of the law are also considered. The impact of the legal provisions on the economic performance of the ports is determined by the manner that these laws support economic development in the port industry.

                Another approach is to consider the extent that laws are effectively enforced. This is because the presence of laws does not necessarily translate to law enforcement.  This is done by obtaining data measuring the effectiveness of the rule of law and the judiciary, the presence or absence of corruption, low levels of contract repudiation, and efficiency of government expropriation.  In relation to port operations, applying this approach involves the consideration of the manner that key players in effectively implementing laws perform their functions so that the objectives of the law in supporting port operations are obtained. Information on the different measures of effectiveness should be obtained in order to assess the effect that these factors have on the economic performance of ports. In the case of corruption, the presence of a high level of corruption hampers the effective implementation of laws providing barriers to the achievement of economic development in the ports.

                The study on the relationship of legality and economic development, used legality variables, which are rule of law, effectiveness of judiciary, non-existence of corruption, low risk of contract negation and low risk in state expropriation as measures of legality. The study also considered fluctuations in the gross national product in measuring the influence of legality variables on economic development in forty-nine states. The study showed that there is a strong association between legality and economic development. A linear regression coefficient showed that for every one percent increase in legality, there is a corresponding four and three quarters increase in gross national product. In substance, this means that in a state where the rule of law applies, there is an independent judicial system, there is no corruption, the government complies with binding agreements and utilizes revenue decisively; there is likely to be a higher GNP growth compared to other states.

                The relationship between the implementation of laws and economic performance is cyclical. On one hand, a strong association between law and economic performance implies that wealthy states have the resources to afford better legal institutions. On the other hand, efficient legal institutions are prerequisites to long-term economic development. In actual economic conditions, economic resources and legal institutions are co-determinants and both elements should be present for law to influence economic performance.

                In the course of history, law has always served to protect and regulate economic activities in consideration of private and public interests.  Industrialization was spurred by the development of law and law enforcements mechanisms that protects private business endeavors. This is because law and legal mechanisms provided a secure atmosphere conducive to the growth and expansion of businesses. Law and legal institutions are keys to sustained economic growth. The relationship implies that a state should allot resources to the development of laws and legal institutions in order to support economic activities. The development of laws and legal institutions imply recognition and compliance of international law.

                Port operations and port related business ventures such as shipping involves complex activities on an international scale, which means that there is a need for laws that protects and regulated the various legal relations between the parties. Port operations involves the engagement in a plethora of contracts between the shipper and the shipping company, the loading and unloading of cargo with port services, the storage of goods in the port facilities, the insurance for the cargo being transported and other related contracts. As ports are flooded with the continuous entry and exit of goods as well as people from different states, there is an increasing demand to provide international standards for the safety and security of ports. The rationale for international standards is that deficiencies in port operations affect the business of a state’s trading partners. Unsafe ports discourage other states to trade with a country because of a high risk of loosing its cargo.

                International law is a body of laws applicable and binding upon all states. International law “is a normative system”. It provides a system of performing conduct regarded as obligatory by the each member of the group and non-compliance involves a certain degree of punishment. Normative systems provide a mechanism for groups to realize order to achieve common good. International law is an “operational system for securing values that we all desire—security, freedom, the provision of sufficient material goods”. In the case of port operations, international law is the mechanism for meeting the common goals of states in relation to trade.   

                International law covering ports include shipping laws and laws of the sea and the conventions on port operations enforced by the United Nations, International Maritime Organization, World Trade Organization and other international bodies. Domestic law also governs port operations of a state. The aspects to be considered in studying the influence of domestic law on the economic performance of ports include domestic maritime laws, the existence of law enforcement institutions and the regulatory bodies.

    Statement of the Problem

                In order to determine the effect of laws, regulations and security procedures on economic development of Saudi’s ports, the researcher should gather data guided through the following questions:

    1.      How did the port operations in Saudi Arabia develop?

    2.      What are the characteristics of the present operations of Saudi ports?

    3.      What is the competitive position of Saudi Arabia’s ports in international trade?

    4.      What international laws affect port operations in Saudi Arabia?

    5.      What international bodies implement these international laws?

    6.      What international agreements or conventions entered into by the government of Saudi Arabia are relevant to its ports?

    7.      What bilateral and multilateral agreements have Saudi Arabia entered into that affects its ports?

    8.      What domestic laws affect Saudi’s ports?

    9.      What port state control regulations are in place in Saudi Arabia?

    10. What is the purpose of recognizing these international laws?

    11.  What objectives are met by entering into conventions, multilateral and   bilateral agreements?

    12.  What is the rationale for the port state control system in place?

    13.  What mechanisms are present to ensure the enforcement of these laws?

    14.  What are Saudi Arabia’s short and long-term economic goals for its ports?

    15.  Does the enforcement of international and domestic laws and regulations coincide with the economic goals of Saudi Arabia for its ports?

    16. What are the different areas of port operations covered by law?

    17. What issues or problems occur in the implementation of law on the different areas of port operations?

    18. What are the conclusions and recommendations that can be derived from the experience of Saudi Arabia?

    Objectives of the Study

                The general objective of the study is to determine the influence that law has on the economic performance of ports in Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives include the determination of the international and domestic laws and regulations affecting the economic performance of the ports, the determination of legal variables used to measure the influence of laws on economic performance of ports, and the determination of the economic measures to show the extent of influence that the legal variables have on the economic measures.

    Significance of the Study

                The study is beneficial to the improvement of the port operations of Saudi Arabia because it provides an assessment of the role of law in the achievement of the economic goals of the state for its ports. The conclusions will show the nature and extent of influence that the different laws have on the economic performance of the ports and the recommendations provide suggestions on how Saudi Arabia can utilize the protection and regulation of different laws to optimize the realization of its economic goals in its ports.


                The study will gather data through primary and secondary sources. Gathering primary data involves interviews of people with expertise, such as officials of the Saudi Port Authority, experts on the domestic and international laws governing port operation. The interview will be semi-structured to allow the researcher to obtain explanations or elaborations of answers to the interview questions to gain sufficient data on the different problem areas. 

    Collecting secondary data involves the research of books, journals, commentaries, papers and other studies on the performance of Saudi Arabian ports, international and domestic laws governing port operations and the influence of these laws on the economic performance of ports. Secondary data include raw data and published summaries, as well as both quantitative and qualitative data. Secondary data fall into three main subgroups, which are documentary data, interview-based data, and those compiled from different sources. Documentary secondary data refer to studies that use primary data collection methods with the information used on their own or combined with other secondary data. Interview-based secondary data are those data collected by questionnaires that have already been analyzed. Such data are available as compiled data tables or as a computer-readable matrix of raw data.

                Data gathered will be presented through sub-topics to facilitate the organized flow of information. Data will be analyzed through a comparative law study method by comparing the similarities and differences in influence of the relevant laws, regulations, and security procedures affecting the economic performance of Saudi’s ports.

    Dove Uses Data, Makes Customers Feel Beautiful

    Dove Uses Data, Makes Customers Feel Beautiful

    Target Marketing

    A recent Infogroup study found that of the marketers surveyed, 47 percent are already seeing ROI on expenditures related to data technology. Data can always help improve targeting and messaging, but in some instances, it can help fuel creativity.

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    Contemporary Issues in Tourism

    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

    Contemporary Issues in Tourism



    The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government views tourism as a sustainable industry and one of the major pillars of Hong Kong’s economy (2001).  As the Government realizes that tourism (1995) is a vehicle for economic and social development, some proactive policies and contingency planes had been adopted to further strengthen and enhance Hong Kong’s capacity to be a key tourist destination. However, even if Hong Kong has been able to manage the tourism issues and problems well, there are still issues that they should consider so as to sustain the development of their tourism industry. Primarily, the main goal of this paper is to identify the contemporary tourism issues and determine how these issues affect both the community and the industry.  


    Tourism Issues

    Five to ten years from now, tourism will be envisioned as an aspect in which progress is utmost. Many alternative tourism activities and programs are implied to drive this development. It includes movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and cultural tours, travel to festivals, visits to sites and monuments in which all movements of persons satisfy the human need for diversity, tending to raise the cultural level of the individual giving rise to new knowledge, experience and encounters ( 2002).

    In contemporary tourism, we have seen a development from mass tourism to alternative tourism, and this trend marks the changes from modern to postmodern age. The issue of mass tourism was criticized for its pessimistic impacts on environment destruction as was evident in the slow but sure change in the late 1970’s to the 1980’s, which saw the manifestation of alternative tourism (1998). However, it also recognized that such economic gains from the commercialization of tourism can directly or indirectly help in supporting the conservation missions of these tourist attractions.  (1993) as well as  (1995) raised a question which inquires into “ascertaining to whom the past belongs” associating it to the influence the conservation processes of tourist attractions.


    Analysis of the Issue

    As mentioned above, the contemporary tourism issue that should be given attention is the commoditization aspect and the destruction of environment. Commoditization refers to the social heritages that become or treated as a sanitized package offering and glorified version of cultural artifacts and experiences for public consumption just like a commodity. Tourism has been criticized for presenting the concept of heritage in exploitative manner in which commercial considerations outweigh the historical accuracy and value. In this sense, communization is argued to result to the static portrayal as well as “production of staged authenticity” which is popular in village folk museums, pseudo-festivals, trivialization, and mass-produced handicrafts therefore, highlighting the substitution, reconstruction, replication, reproduction, simulation, invention, and permutation of otherwise authentic artifacts ( 1993;  2000).       

    According to  (1994) and (1983) a culture is said to be commoditized for tourism when the customs, rituals and arts are performed or produced for tourist consumption changing not only the meaning of cultural products but also the human relations between the producer and the purchaser, the history of these relations, and their ethnic identities (, 2000). Moreover, the commoditization of tradition as a tourist product can likewise create and perpetuate misinformation in the form of stereotypes, biased viewpoints, and prejudices since heritage tourism in particular often serves to facilitate the construction and dissemination of “hyper-real images” of the lives, cultures and traditions of host communities.  On the part of the tourists, such involvement in the commoditization is inevitable in their quest to getaway from their routine life and to seek and be exposed to extraordinary and alternative environment, behavior and living ( 2002).  



    Tourism is regarded as the world’s largest industry in the 21st century.  In this manner, more and more places especially like in Hong Kong have been able to use their natural resources and also their tourism development and creativity to make their regions or sites become the number tourist sites.

    It was mentioned above that there are various issues that should be considered in the tourism industry. These issues may have positive and negative effect in the community and the tourism issues and problems as a whole.  Tourism issue, if managed strategically and efficiently, it would likely to provide economic growth for the place. 

                First, the tourism issues if managed properly and solve efficiently may be able to enhance the employment status of people. Because of the large number of tourists, more individuals are needed for construction purposes to build more accommodations, restaurants and other infrastructure that will enhance the tourism ability of the area. In this manner, when these people are working, they will have a stable income which may help them avail the products and consumer goods in the market place.  Hence, more demands are required which will basically permit the enhancement of the economy.

    Further, the tremendous growth any trends of tourism in Hong Kong may have a tendency to attract more investors to invest in Hong Kong. To be able to invite tourists, a certain place must be attractive so place would be given the chance to improve more landmarks and other tourist-spots within the area. 

    Although, tourism issues may post significant advantages for Hong Kong community and tourism industry it also encompasses some disadvantages.  One of which is the notion that there are some tourists which may cause pollution and can destroy the natural environment such as noise pollution and visual pollution from different infrastructure built for enhancing the tourism industry.  In addition, reengineering of a certain place to build other buildings that will contribute to be one of the central attractions for Hong Kong is costly and that the funds that have been spent may have been better used for other needs of the place or the regions such as educational needs. 

    In addition, there are some tourists who do not respect traditions, customs and cultures, hence, will result conflict among tourists and residence.  Another disadvantage of tourism is it may destroy the natural beauty of a certain place and it may provide the loss of open spaces for future needs.  Crowding and congestion are also some pointed disadvantage that Hong Kong may experience due to the rapid growth of tourism.  



    With the issues and problems faced by the tourism industry, it is but necessary to address tourism issues accordingly. Tourism and the changes in the social, economic and cultural environment call for the necessary measures of proving otherwise the claims made in the previous researches. The challenge that confronts the people in the tourism issues and problems is how to manage their attractions grounded on the standards and ideals of the preservation of the historic context and integrity of promoting particular places and artefacts. This will not only uphold the quality of the services provided by the tourism issues and problems but will likewise serve as an excellent tribute to the history that produced our contemporary society. The conflicts which arise from differing cultural interpretation should be in the realm of constant evaluation and adjustment.      

    Moreover responsible and educational tourism involves social responsibility, a strong commitment to nature and the integration of local people in any tourist operation or development that meets the needs of present tourists, host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity and life support systems in which tourism products are operated in harmony with the local environment, community and cultures so that these become the beneficiaries not the victims of tourism development. Resolving immediately the differences that hinder the balance of cultural preservation and economic considerations in the tourism issues and problems should be the number one priority.


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    by adam @ White Dove Bird

    Are you the owner of a Long Island business? Do you have a website for your business? If you answered “yes” to both those questions, then you are in the right place. Web design is a key factor in making sure that your business gets the most amount of traffic and potential customers as possible. Web design is important for two main reasons – it ensures that more people will be coming to your company website, and it will influence more people that visit to stay on your website. But let’s mainly focus on what gets people to stay on a website, once they visit it. When approaching web design for local Long Island business sites, the site’s visuals are probably the first thing to come to mind. That’s because they’re important! Professional web designers make sure that websites are aesthetically pleasing, so that its visitors are intrigued and want to see more. After all, nobody is interested in a plain, boring website layout. Organization is another important part of web design – your website should be easy for anyone to use, so that they can find what they’re looking for. Websites that are too complicated will confuse or overwhelm visitors, and that means that they will not be interested and leave. Web design and organization is especially important for Long Island businesses because it also improves your Search Engine Optimization (SEO). This means that if your website text-based information is organized properly, you’ll have more visitors looking specifically for your services that are from Long Island. When your web design is done correctly, you will definitely see positive results. Good web designers will get your Long Island business website more traffic, and more of that traffic will be potential customers. The best company websites will be competitive, as more...

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    SEO – How is it Different from SEM?

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    Comment: Dove’s tear-jerker ad engages with hard to reach male market

    Retail Week

    Happy belated Father’s Day to all dads. I hope your comedy socks survived their first wash. If not, there will be another pair next year.


    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

    Question 1


  • Adam sells the painting to Tania for ,500


    In this scenario, Adam functioned as an agent representing the artist, Pauline. He served as a third party to the principal, Pauline. To examine this set of circumstances, a closer look at the legal context of Australia is required. A huge part of the Australian legal system is based on common law system acquired from the English legal system. To this end, determining the outcome of this scenario may well be based on the principles of common law.


    In the said case, Adam was commissioned to sell Pauline’s painting at between ,000 and ,000. However, the painting was sold for much lesser than what was indicated in the agreement between the principal (Pauline) and the agent (Adam). At this point, the painting was sold for ,500 which is considerably far from what has been earlier agreed on. Nevertheless, it has also been stated in the case that the principal seeks a speedy disposal of the merchandise and should be notified if an offer to purchase the artwork for much less than the minimum amount agreed on.


    In looking at the said fact, the analysis would be based on the basic principles of agency law. At this context, it is assumed there was a contract between Adam and Pauline and that the directive provided by the principal that she be informed of an offer much lesser than the minimum of twelve thousand dollars is not followed by the agent. Specifically, there is no written approval of the said offer.


    Based on the said information and assumptions, it appears that Adam has failed to comply with several elements of his part of the contract. This essentially entails a breach on the contract that both principal and agent have agreed upon. To elaborate much further, the agent failed to inform the principal of the low price offered by a Tania and eventually sold the piece of artwork to the said third party. He had done this despite the fact that the principal has not given him the authority to sell the painting for the said price. Adam has failed to provide the principal information that appeared to have been critical to the decision to sell the merchandise. In this context, the agent failed meet the standards of reasonable care, skill, and diligence required and expected from him by the contract. This places Adam in a position where he is liable to Pauline. In this manner, he may be answerable to the remainder of the amount they have agreed upon. This means that Adam is liable to pay Pauline the remaining ,500 in order to satisfy the minimum amount, given that Pauline sought legal actions on the misdeeds of his agent. It is also important to note that Tania, being the third party, has no legal responsibility to Pauline since it appeared that the third party has dealt only with the agent.                 


  • Adam buys the painting on his own account for ,000 and subsequently sells it for ,000 to Tom.


    The key information on this scenario is whether Adam has communicated his intention to purchase the said piece of art to Pauline. This is information critical on the case of Pauline considering the fact that she expects the piece of art to as much as ,000. Nevertheless, it has also been stated in their agreement that she is willing to accept an amount as low as ,000 since she needs the money. Assuming that Adam indeed communicated to Pauline his intentions of buying the painting himself, then he have already shown intentions to bind legal ties. If Pauline responds positively to this situation, then a totally different contract is on imminent. The principle of offer and acceptance should be highlighted in this category.


    Offer and acceptance are among the initial steps in any transactions. For clarity and coherence, the concept of an offer will be discussed separately with the concept of acceptance. An offer should be unambiguous, comprehensive, and communicated to the other party. Thus, certain information disseminating materials that advertises the product to the public is not considered as an offer. An action that is deemed not an offer is portrayed in  (1893) wherein the correspondence is made through telegram. Moreover, the Privy Council noted that the offer was not binding since the mere statement of the lowest price to which the defendant was supposedly seeking to sell does not imply a clear indication of a contract between the two parties. The transaction was just a mere transfer of information. Moreover, once an offer is completed, it could still be withdrawn in any period before the acceptance. However, if the offer is under seal, it could never be revoked. Similarly, it is also possible for an offer to terminate provided that the cut-off date for the acceptance has transpired. On the other hand, an acceptance is the action that the other party undertakes in order to validate a contract. Thus, an acceptance denotes that the other party indisputably agrees with the terms of the contract. According to  (1992), the process of acceptance is twofold. The first one is the fact of acceptance and the other is the communication of acceptance. The offeror is able to dictate the stipulations of the acceptance. Offers could place precise conditions on acceptance and the acceptor is compelled to follow.


    Based on the discussions above, it appears that the scenario implies that Pauline indeed sold the artwork to Adam, thus he did not commit any breach if she accepted the offer from Adam to purchase it at the minimum amount. The acceptance of offer releases him from any fiduciary duty from Pauline. The sale of the said artwork makes Adam the owner of the object and is allowed to sell is at any price. And in so doing, he ceases to be liable to Pauline.  



  • Adam sells the painting to Thea for ,000. Thea considers this to be a bargain price and happily gives Adam ,000 for himself


    The discussions in this scenario still revolve around the contract between the principal and the agent. A contract comprises a “meeting of the minds”. In this context, it is stated that before a contract is signed and enacted, both parties have already established their purposes for joining the contract. In this scenario, the agent has found a buyer for the piece of artwork, which is what is expected by the principal. It has been sold within the price range in which the principal has indicated to the agent. The problem in this setting is revealed when the third party decided to give Adam an extra thousand dollars for his services since she thought of it as a highly considerable bargain.


    The relationship involving Pauline and Adam comprise a fiduciary relationship, it has its foundation in common trust and assurance. This means that any of the party involved should not take advantage of the other. And as stated to the agency principles, the agent considering his duties to the principal should not engage in activities that will compromise his loyalty to the principal. In this case, the acceptance of the extra money as a token of appreciation is considered a failure in the fiduciary duty of the agent. It is this seeming attempt to gain privately on the agency relationship that triggered this failure. With this failure of the duty, a breach of contract is present.


    Similarly, the Fair Trading Act of 1992 has similarly taken into account such unconscionable acts. (Article 13.1) Specifically, Article 18 of the said piece of legislation particularly noted that offering gifts and other prizes to the parties involved as an unfair practice. In the context of the case, the offer of an extra thousand dollars should be accounted to the principal by the agent.


    Question 2


  • Albatross


    In the context of Albatross, they could well push through with their contract with Canary. Based on the facts on their situation with Budgie, it is indeed true that an offer was made. However, because of several circumstances resulting to the swift receipt of Albatross’ intention to create contractual relations, Budgie failed to reply in time. At this instance, it appears that the action relevant in here is the intention of Albatross to bind legal ties with Budgie. An offer was sent but the acceptance was too late.


    In cases similar to this one, it is normally a general rule that the offer could be revoked any time the oferror wants to, provided that an acceptance has yet to be given. In this case, there has yet to be an acceptance on the part of Budgie since Albatross has sent the revocation of the offer fifteen minutes before the acceptance was sent in post. Albatross need not to worry about the issue of the Postal Rule considering the fact that they have communicated the withdrawal of the offer prior to the posting of the acceptance.


    Moreover, Budgie could claim something against Albatross considering that they are covered by Electronic Transactions Act of 1999. According to Section 14 of the said Act, the message has indeed been sent to Budgie since the electronic communication they sent through fax has left the control of the sender and has actually been received in the information system of Budgie. In the said Act, Section14.4 clearly stated that the electronic communication will be received when it comes to the attention of the receiver. This means that the communication of the revocation need not be read by the receiver to be considered communicated in this context. This reveals that Albatross has indeed taken the appropriate actions to address their situation with Budgie.


    On their situation with Canary, their agreement has been merely taken place through instantaneous messages. Though the agreement is theoretically complete with the communication of offer and acceptance, it is recommended to Albatross to seek a meeting with Canary in order to place their agreement in paper. In this manner, a more concrete representation of the agreement will be made. In the same manner, they could jointly agree on installing the specific stipulations in the agreement, aside from the initial offer of ,000 per annum. Moreover, it is also recommended that Albatross install specific clauses in the contract pertaining to the specific actions to be taken by both parties once a breach may take effect.     


  • Budgie


    The claim of Budgie appears to be very weak at its face value. Nevertheless, they may have a case if they do intend to acquire court actions against Albatross. In their perspective, it appears that they have acquired the offer at a late date. This is not their fault, as it was the responsibility of the offeror given that they have made considerable errors that became detrimental to the creation of the contract. The point of this matter is that an offer was indeed made and communicated to them by the offeror.


    And being interested in the offer, the company sent a reply the instant it have viewed the offer on November 6. As was instructed in the offer, the acceptance was made through post. In looking at this situation, it appeared that Albatross was indeed expecting the acceptance to come through mail. And with this stipulation in the offer, the Postal Rule is applicable. The claim of Albatross that they have not heard from Budgie seems to be inconsistent considering it was only several days since the offer was made. Budgie could claim that there was no time limit stated as a stipulation in the offer. (  (1866) LR 1 Ex 109) Similarly, they could have used other means of communication to verify whether the offer was indeed communicated to them. In this manner, they could have been informed that their letter was misplaced in the mail. ((1879) 4 Ex D 216)


    Another claim that Budgie could take is the termination of the offer. Though it is a general rule that the offeror could revoke the offer given that the acceptance has yet to be sent, ((1880) 5 CPD 344) the revocation was not properly communicated to Budgie. The company could also use the Electronic Transactions Act of 1999, particularly Section 14. Since the offeror have used an instantaneous means of communication to convey the revocation of the contract, Budgie could claim that they have not read the message after the acceptance has been posted. They could claim that the message may have been indeed sent through fax but they have failed to deal with it considering they were not expecting any message from Albatross from such medium. As stated in the said Act, it should come to their attention that a message was communicated. Given their situation with Albatross, they could not have reasonably expected the said company to make use of the fax machine as they have vehemently stipulated in their offer that communication must be made through post.               



  • Canary


    As their Albatross had rejected their offer, Canary may have been forced to accept the counter offer of the Albatross. If they feel that they have been disadvantaged by the counter-offer or felt that they have been forced into the contract, they could claim for economic duress. ( (I [1989] 1 All ER 641)


    Nevertheless, if they feel that the agreement may benefit them and felt that they have been treated fairly, they should set a meeting in order to establish specific conditions ( (1876) 1 QBD 410) and possible warranties for the implementation of the contract. ((1876) 1 QBD 183) In this manner, both parties’ interests are secured and specific courses of action are agreed upon once breach of contract take place.





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    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

    I would like to engage your service to complete my MBA project work.

    My project topic is on Customer Relationship Management (CRM).

    It is a case study of a company operation in the Asia Pacific region with the focus on how CRM could improve and sustain its competitive advantage.

    The project should analyse what influences the diverse cultural differences in the region have on the process of implementing a CRM strategy and what need to be customized in the CRM program in order to suit the local context / objectives of the company to increase its market share and maintain competitiveness in this region.

    I have proposed the project to be made up of 4 main parts (refer to project proposal)

    The intended length of the project is 12,000 words, in total.

    I have already started / completed the literature review (Part I) but needs revision to include a summary and references, as commented by the project supervisor. (Refer to attached supervisor’s comments)

    Part II is partially completed.

    Please find below, list of document attached ;
    1) Approved Project Proposal
    2) Writing Part I (need revision)
    3) Writing Part II (Partial)
    4) Comments from project supervisor (1)
    5) Comments from project supervisor (2)
    6) Reference articles (1)
    7) Reference articles (2)
    8)         corporate information/ presentation.
    9) Company brochure of                   Ltd.


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    Define, identify, discuss the historical development and demonstrate a broad comprehension of the nature of systems-oriented theoretical approaces to social issues

    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

    1. Define, identify, discuss the historical development, and demonstrate a broad comprehension of the nature of systems-oriented theoretical approaches to social issues. (5 pages)


    The study of human systems began in the twentieth century in the introduction of General Systems Theory.  This is a cross-discipline field assuming that social science can pin down the living and non-living and treat them as systems.  A Person In Environment (regarded as PIE) yields the suggestion of existing in a system that may be organized and arranged through social means.  By system, similarities are determined with relations to patterns, unities and connecting to a whole. Systems can be a group of people, or units such as “families, organizations, communities, societies, and cultures” (Anderson, Carter, Lowe and Gruyter, 1999, p. 4).  It is important to see the origin of social systems theory as beginning on Systems theory that came out influenced by various fields post-World War II.  To approach social science by systems has been a debate of scholars.  Systems itself is a vague term that may be employed and applied in several manners but what remains true is how they consistent of components or parts that function to form a whole in their own interdependent manner.


    Systems to put more simply and bluntly describe relationships and the workings of interactions.  The smallest unit of society is not the individual that will consist of the society as acollective but the most basic interaction or relationship the individual is able to bridge that will then form sequences, “patterns of exchange that occurs between individuals”.  According to Jacob and Tennenbaum, the smallest unit of society then is “the system of members in mutual and interdependent relationships with one another, not individual behavior in isolation of context” (p. 4).  Thus, a social system.  It then proceeds to say that society or the world’s root is not the person but the relationship and interaction this person forms with another.  The world, or society to say, cannot exist without communication.  This remains to be a general or broad take of what a system is supposed to be.  Systems may still be divided into levels or ranked to consist of suprasystems and subsystems according to Joan Jurish and Karen Myers-Bowman (1998).  Jurish and Myers-Bowman explain this configuration through the systems that consist a human body such as the “circulatory, digestive, neurological”, which may be regarded as subsystems consisting a whole suprasystem which is the human body.  Systems Theory has various assumptions:  First, it believes in holism which focuses on the sum whole than its parts (and which would be expounded further in Parsons’ section).  In holism, each interaction is an event that builds up to a pattern and forming a whole.  Secondly, it assumes that Living Systems are open in a way that it would actively initiate and bring forth exchanges and interactions rather merely taking the role of responsive individuals.  Human beings are also deemed to be intelligent enough to be reflective on what they do and know.  Reality is consequently a construct, subjective rather objective.  Systems Theory may educate how reality is perceived according to how it is organized and understood.  Above all, Society is self-sustaining on its own (Jurish and Myers-Bowman, 1998).       


    General Systems Theory may be considered as founded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy during the earlier half of the 20th century.  Bertalanffy became considered how the study of living beings can be so technical, scientific and mechanical.  This is said to limit and “neglect” as well as “deny” to how life functions.  Bertalanffy would rather for the perspective on Biology to be a living organism which cannot be pinned down by laws and concepts.  His theories were then published after the World War where systems theory began to be embraced by various cross-disciplines.  Jurish and Myers-Bowman (1998) add that the second World War in itself was a “major impact on the development of systems theory” where new fields such that of Norbert Wiener’s cybernetics was invented in order to further boost the defense weaponries of an army.  Cybernetics emphasized on “feedback systems and communication technology” which allowed a further appreciation of the systems theory as an appreciation of electronics lead to a re-evaluation of how the human brain functions. This application of systems theory was further expounded by Gregory Bateson who integrated both the cybernetic processes to that of human processes which further led to the utilization and application of systems theory to the social science especially the family (Jurish and Myers-Bowman, 1998)    


     The idea of social activity as identifiable and possibly treated as a system began in the ancient times when Greeks initially perceive of systems as resembling a body, each part with its own role to contribute to this body.  Then Thomas Hobbes was said to have taken the idea of society as an organism in his book, Leviathan.  These efforts inspire the idea of society as living and working together to sustain itself.     According to Kenneth Bausch (1999) Talcott Parsons was the first to apply systems theory in American society.  In the book, “The Social Systems”, he proposed the idea of organizing society in to systems as a viable and autonomous guide for research and study and not merely as limiting as “extensions of psychology or manifestations of culture”.   The actions of the individuals consisting a society is towards societal goals, “people are determined by society” (Anderson et al, 1999, p. 4).  Parsons emphasis is that people sum up to a whole and thus a system can only be understood in its whole than in dividing it into isolated parts.  What was prioritized then is the relationships between This is also called the Macro point of view.  Another proponent is Habermas who promotes the Action Theory which has to do with the necessity of communication in the existence of a society.  By this, individuals need to interaction with each other and form a culture that would stress the importance of roles and functions in order to sustain society in its ongoing processes.  This is a more interaction based point of view that emphasizes on the units that comprise society than the society that is collected and built up.  By emphasizing on parts, the point of view becomes the atomic.  In this regard, it is people who determine society than societal norms, culture and goals determining how people should function.  Society is dependent to the people that exist within it and thus, it is dependent on how the individual functions or behaves so to speak.  This behavior may comprise of a pattern that will then comprise of a system.   


    Thus maintaining the system can be performed in four ways.  Firstly is to maintain the sense of pattern through stability and institutionalizing such pattern (which may be a challenge to do in curbing the individual to the patterns.  The maintenance of the system may also be expressed by goal orientation wherein society is motivated towards the attaining of goals for the sake of the system.  Thirdly there is maintenance through adaptation which is through the sacrifice or disposal of some goals in respect to a more necessary one to maintain the organization.  Then fourthly there is the integration which is supposed to be the integration of the functions of pattern and goal orientation.  By integration, adjustment also becomes essential in order to fully accept goals towards the effectiveness and stability of a pattern.  It is what eventually keeps the system intact in its whole self.  


    The critique with the General Social System Theory was that it idealizes society as that is quiet, peaceful and orderly.  Society also comprises of stable and rational individuals all working towards unity.  It fails to include the possibilities of chaos, inequality and instability.  Scholars dispute that Social Systems are in reality, chaotic and complex as systems are subjected to constant change.  While General Systems Theory supposes that societies will proceed to one end, the Complex theory proceeds with the notion of multiple ends.  There is no circular motion nor is there a way to go back to where society started.  “Once a system has developed along a given path it cannot simply go back again.” This is because relationships upon interrelationships would have formed to “complicated and interwoven” heights.   This theory actually disputes the existence of a systems theory as it postulates human beings as inability to be contained and covered by science and unable to supply the multiple levels and dimensions which will enrich it.  It regards social systems as too complicated an understanding that cannot be pinned down (Franklin, Skeeter and Warren, 1998).


                In the application of System approaches to School District Management, systems theory holds that schools are managed in such a way that they would resemble “organizations, where teachers are accountable for their students’ results”.  Systems Theory also promote personalized, subjective and one on one learning where the learning is performed by the student and not provided by the mentor.  The philosophy behind this is that the school is a sum of a whole, of each student working positively.  Systems theory would make effective and efficient the educational institution through its arrangement of levels supra-systems and subsystems.  Because relationships and interactions are emphasized, teachers are encouraged to build relationships with students as students are also necessary in building relationships with each other.  With systems theory, students can indeed become “active learners seeking knowledge” because of the personal attention granted to them.  This means the school needs to be self-sufficient, open and reflective (Hong et al, 1997).


                Systems Theory calls for schools to be synchronized and united in one clearly defined purpose each subsystem with their purpose and functions to meet in order to allow the suprasystem to meet the said goal (through a feedback system).  Systems are also supposedly dynamic that will consist of “cycles and trends”.  School systems are also by assumption rational thus each child is worthy of such a treatment as rational beings (Sybouts, 1992, p. 25).         


    Schools should have “sufficient variety, or diversity” in order for it to be creative and responsive as well as self-regulating.  The school is influenced by all its constituents and goal-oriented which is usually the “intellectual and emotional development of students” (p. 18) through modified thoughts (output, as well as input of another system such as the student’s families or other systems).  In fact this is the major objective of each school which is to precisely “develop educated citizens” (p. 19). 


    The School District is a suprasystem containing ideally various interdependent subsystems such as the “classroom, an administrative council, a curriculum committee, or an extracurricular student club”.  The School District as a suprasystem has relationships with each of its subsystems and to a larger suprasystem such as its “community and regional environments”. The school will be an inter-working of systems and resources outside and inside.  Again, systems cannot exist without relationships so the very basic unit of school systems may be “tutoring pairs, project groups, committees, classrooms, school staffs, and entire districts” (p. 19).  The classroom or school staff themselves may be a suprasystem of subsystems such as friendship cliques.       


    Patricia Schmuck and Richard Schmuck (1974) provide the Principles for employing systems theories to the school organization.  According to the authors subsystems may consistent of “Learning groups, constituted of students, teacher(s) and curriculum materials.” Communication is established together through a sharing of data and responsibilities.  The learning group may only consist of a pair of people or the group can be the entire school district in itself.  The subsystems encourage interactions with one another.  The changes are performed top-down.  Personal relationships would also be established from the “I-Thou transactions.”  These systems also have specified goals (p. 21) and are designed in such a way that may predict future outcomes thus leading to flexibility.  The system also attends to the “emotional needs of members” in the achievement of the school mission as each member is increasingly sensitive of one another. Learning groups are also above all, interdependent along with the other subsystems and these systems continuously influence each other.  This is in lieu of the system theory’s premise of an open and flexible system.  This is usually the sources of conflicts due to discrepancies in goals and interdependence.  This is natural in a school within the system theory set-up according to Schmuck and Schmuck but the system also holds that it is self-regulating and able to communicate grievances enough to lessen stress caused by the conflicts.  There is also the availability of resources and the inevitability of culture. 


    In applying systems theory to schools, Schmuck and Schmuck propose a four-level framework.  To enumerate (1974, p. 94):


    1) The individual – Students, teachers, and administrators

    2) The learning group – Classrooms and committees;

    3) The school organization – The social procedures of the levels working together

    4) The external environment- School board, budget, and parents.


    By understanding the above mentioned levels, it may be even more possible to strategize a system-oriented school. 


    2. Critique systemic approaches to school district management associated directly systems-oriented theoretical approaches.


    Systems oriented approach to social issues has made its mark in managing or administrating schools especially since schools can be taken as organizations: suprasystems and subsystems.  The school is in every right a social system, not just of students and teachers, but also to the families of the students.  Thomas Cafferty and Frederic Medway (1992) considers the contribution of school psychology to school psychology.  They are related because they have similar origins and philosophies.  Cafferty and Medway proposes the treatment of schools as organizations and believe that this allow “effective intervention strategies” with regards to “structure, process and behavior.” Structure means Organizational Structure which is given rise by the mission statement of an organization.  It will determine the goal beliefs of the school and purposes of the school.  This may enhance the functioning of the organizations. 


    As organizations, schools may relate to each other and respond to each other.  Schools achieve its mission and goals precisely through the cooperation and coordination of its people and systems.  More basically, this is performed through constant communication, interaction and building effective relationships that may be guided by effective policies.  Everything in the school, despite having to deal with technical aspects such as “budgets, marketing, hierarchies” are systems that exist to manage relationships.   




    Bureaucracy was the common system or theory that has managed organizations such as schools.  The literature is rich with theories, studies, research, critiques as well as analyses.  For man times this structure was adapted to several organizations and fields.  It introduced concepts such as “decision making, leadership, motivation, organizational politics, and systems theory”(p. 39). Bureaucracies present hierarchies.  Some officials are higher than some and there are the presences of domination and authority (and thus subjection and accountability of subordinates).  Contracts govern positions, formality, loyalty, technicality, and employment that is paid by salaries.  The effect this has on schools is that there is “discontinuity”.  This also means the lack of relationships and a prevailing impersonality.  Roles are strictly and expected to be followed and employees are hired because of technical skills and abilities.  Divisions make it difficult for communication to take place and lack of awareness of one division to another.  Work has a tendency to be poorly distributed because some divisions have more responsibilities than others.  There is also the prevailing indifference from one division to another such that disables the possibility of assistances.   The lack of communication would lead to a lack of policies, a mission statement and core beliefs that would have been the administration’s way to communicate its goals to its subordinates.  By having no such communication or policies, there was a vague notion of what to do, how to plan and inconsistency.  Responsibilities were also unclear besides proceeding in a schedule.  The lack of communication also made it impossible for teachers or students to air their opinions.  Because there is a lack of policies, rules, orders and decisions were vague enough to cause internal conflicts, stress and tensions in the bureaucracy. 


    Thus, there is the Social Systems Theory as an alternative.  This involves the need towards communication, interaction and relationships such that the Bureaucracy Theory was unable to address.  The bureaucracy emphasizes hierarchy, structures and control while the social system theory involves a more meaningful and defined job beyond mere employment and salaries.  They are the sum of a whole, working together for the good of the organization.  Subjectivity is prioritized over objectivity as bureaucracy is deemed a dehumanized system for the lack of personal regard to them.  Social systems consider the role of relationships in shaping the individual’s behaviour within an organization.  It considers the organization as a culture, as consisting of roles, unique and gifted individuals and individuals as substantially enriched by socialization.  Roles, rather to be strictly and expected to be followed, are a means towards expression of oneself.  Roles, most importantly, are not only individual, but more importantly, social.  It involves relationships with other people as teachers for example are necessitated to construct relationships with students, colleagues, and their administrators in order to fully enact on their roles. 




    Inevitably some would see schools as organizations that are not ideal for Systems theory.  Learning may be taken as a complex activity than systematic and organized.  David Reilly (1999) emphasized how education reform efforts in American education were unsuccessful in producing more “acceptable learning outcomes” and only end up spending several billions of dollars towards an effective learning for students because it fails to consider learning as a chaotic and complex process.  Instead, the focus has largely been on systems theory.  Systems theory had apparently limited student learning through low expectations and rigid guidelines.  Nonlinear systems theory or the chaos and complex theory is said to be effective in understanding how a student learns and demonstrating this.  “Learning is clearly a developmental process” such that cannot be traced or generalized.  Students learn differently in different levels, ages, speeds and amounts due to the fact that each student has different ways in processing information.  Learning cannot be logical and rational as systems theory would hold.  Systems Theory, as mentioned earlier, assumes that there is equifinality and rationality in the organization in question.  It is a more optimistic and rather utopic point of view that Reilly (1999) disputes against.  Nonlinear systems theory hold that there is “irregular periodicity, sensitivity to initial conditions and minute changes in process, and lack of predictability” which also goes to say much as to how learning takes place.  There is no logical procedure.  Only then can teachers truly understand how students learn, by being open to various options rather set roles.  In a Linear systems theory, Curriculum guidelines are “predictable, sequential and linear” each with certain set expectations to meet such that may cause problems later as it may be invariable to the learning extent of the child.  In order to compliment the learner’s chaotic and unpredictable learning ability, the guidelines should not be set and in fact be interchangeable. 


    Bureaucratic Theory is usually regarded as the traditional model while systems theory is considered as the more innovative.  Bureaucratic is hard to disregard in favour of the systems alternative.  Tamar Levine, Hanna Shachar and Shlomo Sharan (1999) call systems theory as a combination while bureaucracies are known to divide through its specializations.  Bureaucracy does not pay attention to the environment or “on the horizontal (rather than vertical) relationships and interaction in the organization, the exchanges and information flow between colleagues” (p. 2).  Systems are known to, in the meantime, “exchange matter, energy and information with their environments” through processes and performances of inputs and outputs allowing it to be self-sustaining.  Feedback is taken here as a crucial ingredient in schools especially in reinforcing communication, interaction and relationships between the organization’s systems.  Feedback emphasizes that information comes not from one entity (the administration or authority) but rather, everywhere.  This may be teams of teachers who will combine forces in order to solve problems.   According to the three authors, this system remains to be unknown in today’s schools as the bureaucratic school remains prevailing.  All parts are dependent to hierarchy rather interdependent among each other.  Schools, according to Levine, Shachar and Sharan are “a strange kind of system” (p. 8) because the systems may not be as interdependent and rather, be “loosely connected” (p. 8)  This is true in the cases of students with irregular classes and classmates.  There is a prevailing disconnection between students and teachers.  For a true systems approach to take place within a school, there is really the necessity to invite innovative teaching methods that will generate feedback loops and interaction rather a one-sided learning (all from which produced and coming from the teacher).  Efforts include the changing of schedule, textbooks and inclusion of computer which will promote a sense of interaction.  Schools are largely dominated by divided disciplines which fail to see holistic connections.  In order to encourage communication among such mentors, they would need to group together and collaborate in solving problems and in the data gathering.  Teachers may also collaborate to “formulate schoolwide policies” (p. 9).  Basically, “there should be communication between teachers within and between departments dealing with different subject areas; it is equally important that such communication hold meaning for the students” (p. 10).  Teachers are responsible of whether the curriculum will be rigid or not, or the collaboration or division of which.  Once they are able to employ systems theory, it will be reflective and passed along from top down. 


    Levine, Shachar and Sharan (1999) consider “the concept of feedback for self-regulation and the goal-oriented nature of systems for transforming input to yield a product of some kind” (p. 16) as the Unique Contributions of Systems Theory to School Organizations.  This is because schools have a recurring problem of having sufficient feedback processes that will monitor its processes and allow it to be self-regulated.  The authors consider it an infamous problem of having “clear links between means and ends” due to the poor or lack of communication and inability to obtain feedback.  This is also brought by the fact that schools tend to follow the traditional Bureaucratic model.  This is largely because there is a lack of interest in being a community and accomplishing responsibilities to the good of the organizations.  The systems theory indeed perceives of the school as not just an organization but a community.  However bureaucratic tendencies still overwhelm and overpower the educational institution especially in teacher and classroom pattern.  Levine, Shachar and Sharan (1999) are adamant in their recommendation of using the teams of teachers model as a means towards generating feedback and the systems model.  Classrooms needed to be designed in such a way that will compliment the organization, “the whole” of the school.  As subsystems embody and are interrelated into suprasystems, classrooms perceivably “incorporate the basic features of the manner in which the school as a whole is organized and operates” (p. 56).  The school’s direction is enacted by the merest student following academic tasks.  


    The ideal school, or the school of tomorrow, will follow the systems theory.  There will be “interrelatedness” and “integration” as the school will react not only among itself but to its outside environment (or the community it belongs to).  In this manner, communication and interaction take place.  Teachers will not be divided in their own classrooms and disciplines for specific amount of times.  “The school’s organization will have considerable flexibility and mobility among its component elements” (p. 78) Decision is not only made by teachers but also teachers as participation and collaboration make up of the “critical decisions regarding teaching and learning”.  Instruction is not one-sided or coming from teachers alone, but students will be active learners “through processes of problem solving, discussion, investigation, simulation and so forth as individuals or as in teams”.  Students will not be alone in this undertaking as they will be supported by their mentors and the resources needed to perform this.  Students will also be guided by other people who may be masters in their professions in order to integrate real life experiences in education.  Resources will also include the latest technology and data all of which leading to a “production-oriented institutions”.  The mission of this said school will be communicated with its processes (means to ends) while being learner centred at the same time as the students’ “interests, needs, and successes” will be addressed as acquired by feedback.         



    3. ) Demonstrate an understanding of the major concepts in systems-oriented theories, and how they are expressed in the context of school district management structures.


    The Independent School Districts of Texas is one of the school districts which has been inching away from the Traditional fold, which would be the Bureaucratic way of managing a school district.  It has been adjusting to environmental changes along with other public school districts.  The changes have been from top down leading to a School wide Reform to redefine how its organizations and systems are arranged.  Bureaucratic systems are known  to under utilize and waste human and physical resources due to the lack of integration and interrelation.  The State of Texas has consequently promoted a system of organizational changes through small districts or charter school districts.  Charter school districts as well as Independent School Districts are now tasked to apply such change. 

    Having discussed system theories and having treated schools as organizations and having established the growing awareness to reform U.S. education by policy makers from top down, the paper will proceed to apply what has been established to the Charter school Districts and I.S.Ds in the State of Texas.   This involves raising the bar to higher standards for not only the students to meet but also the teachers.  The immediate solution that appears was the improvement of the system, the organization in which the school functions.  Each individual is responsible and expected to accomplish their roles towards an improved learning and enhanced interaction through feedback.  The school will also acknowledge that each subsystem is very much representative of the whole.  The State of Texas has taken the challenge to upgrade itself to a higher more effective form of education.  To do this, the change needs to take place within the system which means acknowledging the need towards interrelations and a clear goal.  Most educational reforms opt to enhance a school’s resources which would not be as useful and contributing if it was not integrated along with the internal system, processes and results.  If there is no cohesion or an innovative take in education, the reforms will find it difficult to surface.  For systemic change to take place and for it to be totally comprehensive and penetrating, an educational environment should ideally employ a systems approach towards change.  When one says top-down, that means the Federal government, to the local government, to the school district, to the school building in itself and to its very core: the classroom (which as emphasized, is a suprasystem of subsystems).  The administration is linked to the instruction department (consisting of teachers) while the government supports the administration.    By creating a flow of communication, interaction and relationship among the systems, systems may be open and flexible.  It is necessary for the Educational system to be open because it needs to interact with its environment and within it.  In this manner, evaluation and adaptability may be performed.   By cohesion, it is possible for a system to function as a whole, from the classroom to the government level.  There are Six Design Phases for a systems approach which is Planning, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. (Russo-Converso, 2001, p. 22)

    ·        Plan: Determine desired outcomes, identify stakeholders that include sponsors, advocates, change agents, and change targets.


    ·        Analysis: Identify gap between “what is and what should be” and causes of the gap. Select alternative solutions (e.g., innovations and interventions) to close or eliminate the gap.

    ·        Design: Create guidelines and processes for implementing and evaluating selected solutions.

    ·        Development: Create innovations and interventions to close or eliminate the gap between “what is and what should be.”

    ·        Implementation: Diffuse the innovation and intervention.

    ·        Evaluation: Formatively measure the effectiveness and efficiency in terms of desired outcomes for the purpose of continuous improvement.


    The State of Texas Public Education Mission and Objectives is that every child is given quality education to allow them to reach their potentials and contribute as well as participate in their society.  Students will be encouraged and granted several opportunities in order to attain growth and meet standards not only local but also international.  The teachers will similarly have to be qualified and effective.  Emphasized also is the need to train and develop them.   The credo also mentions the needs of an environment that promotes safety and learning, critical to a systems approach organization.  One objective is of critical note: “Educators will keep abreast of the development of creative and innovative techniques in instruction and administration using those techniques as appropriate to improve learning” This one objective emphasizes the openness towards a systems approach of the Texas Public Education system.  There is also the goal towards resources and implementation of technological resources in order to “increase the effectiveness of student learning, instructional management, staff development, and administration”.  There is a top-down approach towards the implementation of technology which also is an objective of a systems approach in order to enhance interaction and communication.  The objective emphasizes how improvement must not only be made in the part of students but also the teachers and administrations.    


    It is important for Teachers to construct relationships with students, colleagues, and their administrators in order to fully enact on their roles.  As they determine the instructional department of the school, constant training would be enormous in its contribution to allow them not only to work among students but among themselves as they could expertly provide evaluation and feedback regarding the school system.  In this manner, there will be a bridging of communication rather the disconnection that has been plaguing poorly modelled bureaucratic schools.  Teachers can enormously contribute to the curriculum which makes their training truly important and they have what it takes to bringing cohesion in a divided school organization.  Teachers make critical decisions rearding the school system which emphasizes the need towards participation and collaboration in their part.  

    24 Questions to Clear Innovation Clutter

    by Lisa Nirell @ EnergizeGrowth

    What contributes to marketing overwhelm (other than the 7,000 products on the martech chart)? Overstuffed calendars. They create marketing innovation clutter, which hampers growth and competitive relevance. How crowded is your calendar? Among our CMO communities, the predominant cause of marketing innovation resistance is self-inflicted overwhelm. It’s insidious. I have found that it’s usually triggered […]

    The post 24 Questions to Clear Innovation Clutter appeared first on EnergizeGrowth.

    The Best of Global Digital Marketing in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

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    The post Facebook’s Sheryl Sandberg: Digital is causing the collapse of the marketing funnel appeared first on Marketing Week.



    Unilever global company website

    Dove is committed to helping women realise their personal potential for beauty by engaging them with products that deliver real care.

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    by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

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    by Best Marketing @ Best Marketing

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    SWOT analysis of Dove - Dove SWOT analysis

    SWOT analysis of Dove - Dove SWOT analysis


    Here is the SWOT analysis of Dove which is one of the strongest brands in the product portfolio of Hindustan Unilever. Dove has presence in various products

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    The post How AI Will Transform Life Sciences Marketing appeared first on Prophet Thinking.

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    The post How do small FMCG companies take big steps in conducting research? appeared first on Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG.

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    The post The Body Shop on how its new owners are trying to revive its ‘activist spirit’ appeared first on Marketing Week.


    by adam @ White Dove Bird

    Online marketing and the need for an impeccable online presence has certainly gained more traction over the last few years than before. Of course, humans have done what they do best with this opportunity, which is develop and make it better. Search engine optimization (SEO) and social media optimization (SMO) are two incredible facilities to help online marketers establish a more professional, responsive, and functional online presence. Before drawing a contrast between these two tools, we had better get to defining their usefulness separately first. SEO This is the most popular of the bunch because internet users are more aware of the search engines and patronize them more. Search engines like Google, Bing, Ask, Yahoo, etc. have always be seen as a possible means of generating income online. This is so because they guarantee exposure since people are always looking to search for certain keywords. It is simply a means of setting up your webpages and website content to feature first or rank high) on search results. This includes using carefully selected keywords and strategically arranged page content. SMO This isn’t as popular as the former because it wasn’t until recently social media networks and platforms became a very viable option to pursue online sales in. SMO means social media optimization. The advantage of SMO is palpable in the “share ability” of information between linked affiliates on social media since it permits more inbound links for a webpage to turn up in search queries. CONTRAST BETWEEN SEO VS SMO It is important to state that implementing both strategies for your online marketing campaign will produce terrific results, but there are some factors that distinguish these two distinctly. SEO is dependent on the quality of content. It ultimately requires a lot of effort to work; getting unique content based on specific...

    Continue Reading


    by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics




                The Virgin Atlantic Airways is a UK-based private international airline that started operation in 1982.  Flying up to 20 destinations in North America, Asia and Africa, it is 51% owned by Virgin Group and 49% owned by Singapore Airlines ().  It competes with other local and international airlines including British Airways, the biggest and leading in UK.  In 2005, it posted .5B in sales and M net income with year-on-year sales and net income growth more or less at 37% and 900% respectively ().  With this information, it suggests firm’s bright future and industry fair share of the market.  However, external and industry environment analysis is a continuous process ( 2003) that every now and then makes prediction and preparedness an integral part of strategic actions of firms to efficiently manage opportunities and threats outside its organization.     


    The External Environment: PEST Analysis

                In the local environment, local elections to be held on May this year could made Tony Blair’s concentration in national issues such as health and education shift into local issues such as crime, anti-social behavior and environment ().  As a result, transport industries including aviation should consider this early the type of their fuels and fix emission loopholes.  They must research oil suppliers that sell environment-conscious fuels and test its efficiency and compatibility with aircraft engines including preparation to possible fluctuations in present fuel costs. 


                In fuel-related issue, the European Union resorted legal action against member countries like France, Germany and Italy of protecting their utility firms against foreign competition ().  As a result, prices of fuels failed to obtain efficiencies of competitive industry making oil prices for the transport sector more costly.  Local aviation firms should consider this EU action significant disincentive to their cost-effective strategies because UK, unlike the mentioned countries, fosters foreign imports making oil prices for the industry cheaper.  If these countries are able to liberalize the energy sector, possible cost strategy is necessary to retain the prior upper hand.


                Research suggests that rural, metropolitan and London population either employed, unemployed or economically inactive dispose most of their weekly budget to transportation along with food and recreation ().  Since socio-cultural segment affects economic and political/ legal segments ( 2003), aviation industry could less be influenced by the latter outcomes despite of their ambiguity (will Blair retain position or will EU countries accept the directive) because consumers are willing to pay with little regard to price, instead, value of service.  As a result, it is more strategic to focus on operations than financial structures. 


                Another finding show that 58% of the household population has computers while 49% of which has internet connection with metropolitan areas like London posted the highest incidence ( ).  This information is relevant to most huge firms like Virgin Atlantic Airways who heavily relies in e-business with its interactive website wherein customers can obtain flight schedules and book a flight with their finger tips.  The other half of the population without computers can be addressed by the firm through other forms of media.  In addition, it can also verify through additional scanning the prevalence of internet café in rural areas where household ownership is relatively low.


    The Industry Environment: Five Forces

                New entrants in the industry basically face two difficulties: barriers to entry and retaliation from present firms ( 2003)  In the aviation industry, particularly the service passenger-based ones like Virgin Atlantic Airways, in modern economies are privately-operated that calls for substantial financial requirements at the fore.  Since travel services are derived demand (), new entrants should be able to cut a share in the pie in the presently saturated market.  This endeavor could result to another substantial resource to be deployed.  However, with such new entrant engagement, it does not assure of intended results because competitors like Virgin already created strategic links to other country-routes including its alliance with Asian giant Singapore Airlines that makes it easy to create counter-strategy.


                Boeing, the largest manufacturer of jetliners and supplier of Virgin’s aircrafts, had recently signed long-term agreement with largest aerospace parts distributor            for an Integrated Materials Management ().  As a result, Boeing could reduce its inventory and minimize warehousing costs because spare parts will be provided only when needed.  A cost reduction strategy from a supplier can assure customers like Virgin of price management scheme, if not, its another supplier, Airbus (the once number one airline manufacturer) could be resorted.


    Competitors in the industry have the same capability in terms interactivity of their web pages like Virgin.  This is supported almost fifty percent prevalence of internet connection among UK market, not to mention other countries.  As a result, the power of buyers to gain access to prices and services of firms increase making them knowledgeable of distinction of one from the other.  Companies on their part are obliged to be more competitive especially in maintaining and updating their web sites. 


    The country’s sea transport industry had developed super ferries while the 2003 recorded 17.4% increase of UK passengers who took cruise holidays that reached nearly one million in that year ().  This development would make sense to airline industry tourism and leisure market especially foreigners that like to see the national endowments.  With demand for airline transport rise at faster rate than supply for it, the airline industry is required to effectively allocate its resources in a manner that exploit this supply shortage.


    Other airline competitors in the likes of AMR Corp., British Airways and Lufthansa are operating in at least 150 destinations compared to Virgin’s 20 ().  As a result, rivalry among these firms against Virgin is relatively insignificant although strategic actions of Virgin that directly and significantly threat their market could spark retaliation in the detriment of relatively small firm.  The firm should focus in its target market and avoid competing with these large firms. 



                By studying this external and industry analysis on environmental facts, it could be said that Virgin Atlantic Airways is situated in standard cycle markets wherein its competitive advantage is moderately shielded from imitation.  In general, airline industry belongs to slow cycle markets, however, due to relatively smaller capital and operations of some firms like Virgin, companies within this industry are unable to assure their long-term above average returns because they are relatively vulnerable to general environment (low lobbying power) and relatively unsecured to industry forces (potential entrants or larger competitor predation).  As a result, Virgin should focus in a specific market niche or specific routes to obtain value other than price and survive the competition.      



    Why market research and analysis are essential for every company’s success

    by Glow Team @ Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG

    There are so many ways for a business to accomplish their goals and achieve the riches. They can innovate new products, find niche markets, or drive their operations to be more efficient. But the key to a company’s success is a combination of market research and market analysis. A lot of businesses don’t conduct their […]

    The post Why market research and analysis are essential for every company’s success appeared first on Glowfeed | Industry Reports and Research Kits for FMCG.

    The Real Story Behind the Success of Dove's Campaign for Real Beauty

    The Real Story Behind the Success of Dove's Campaign for Real Beauty


    Marketing Strategy - Contrary to popular opinion, Boomer women aren't in denial about aging. Advertisers are. And the women they're supposed to be trying to connect with are getting annoyed.

    Axe wants to give men their own Dove moment in first global brand campaign

    Axe wants to give men their own Dove moment in first global brand campaign

    The Drum

    Unilever-owned Axe, known as Lynx in the UK, has made a U-turn on its marketing strategy and is looking to emulate the success sister-brand of Dove's Real Beauty Sketches push with its first global brand campaign that promises to inject a bit of honesty into the male grooming category.

    Next: We won’t retaliate against Amazon, we will learn from them

    by Thomas Hobbs @ Marketing Week

    Despite Amazon’s own-label fashion brand Find going after its core customers, Next chief executive Lord Wolfson says he won’t slip into 'terrible analogies of war'.

    The post Next: We won’t retaliate against Amazon, we will learn from them appeared first on Marketing Week.

    The Best of Global Digital Marketing in Mumbai, India

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    Dove Marketing Mix (4Ps) | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

    Dove Marketing Mix (4Ps) | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

    MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

    Marketing Mix of Dove analyses the brand/company which covers 4Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion). Dove marketing mix explains the business & marketing strategies of the brand.

    Why Marketing ROI Often Misses the Point

    by Lisa Nirell @ EnergizeGrowth

    It was a crisp fall day in October 2000. I was preparing for a big presentation to the leadership team in Microsoft’s Redmond, WA headquarters. As an outside consultant working for Siebel Systems, I needed to prove myself quickly, and demonstrate that we were generating a solid marketing ROI for them. This was an exciting […]

    The post Why Marketing ROI Often Misses the Point appeared first on EnergizeGrowth.

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    Dove Shampoo, Dryness & Itch Relief 12 oz
    Dove Body Wash Deep Moisture 24 oz, Pack of 3
    Dove Purely Pampering Body Wash, Coconut Milk (24 fl. oz., 3 pk.)
    Dove go sleeveless Antiperspirant, Beauty Finish 2.6 oz, 2 Pack
    Dove Beauty Bar, White 4 oz, 2 Bar
    Dove Men + Care Revitalize Face Cream Lotion 1.69oz (Quantity 1)
    Dove Oxygen Moisture Shampoo and Conditioner Set 12 Ounce
    Sensitive Skin Unscented Moisturizing Cream Beauty Bar By Dove, 12 Count 4 Oz Each
    Dove Beauty Bar, Sensitive Skin 4 oz, 6 bar
    Dove Regenerative Nourishment Shampoo and Conditioner Set, 8.45 FL OZ each
    Dove Purely Pampering Shea Butter Beauty Bar with Vanilla Scent Soap 3.5 Oz / 100 Gr (Pack of 12 Bars)
    Dove Antiperspirant Deodorant, Powder 2.6 Ounce, (Pack of 6)
    Dove Body Wash Deep Moisture 24 oz, Pack of 3
    6 Cans of Dove Men+Care Invisible Dry 150ml Anti-Perspirant Anti-Transpirant Spray
    Dove Clinical Protection Antiperspirant Deodorant, Cool Essentials 1.7 oz
    Dove Sensitive Skin Nourishing Body Wash, 12 Ounce (2 Pack)
    Dove Men+Care Body Wash, Extra Fresh 23.5 Ounce (Pack of 2)
    Dove Men + Care Face Wash, Hydrate, 5 Oz (Pack of 3)
    Dove Men+Care Body Wash, Extra Fresh 13.5 oz, Twin Pack
    Dove Hs Srength/Shine Xho Size 7z Dove Hs Srength/Shine Xhold 7z
    Dove Dry Shampoo Refresh and Care Volume and Fullness, 5 Ounces, 3 Pack
    Dove Men+Care 2 in 1 Shampoo and Conditioner, Fresh and Clean 25.4 oz
    Dove Sensitive Skin Unscented Hypo-Allergenic Beauty Bar 4 oz, 2 ea (Pack of 2)
    Dove Men + Care Body & Face Wash, Clean Comfort 13.50 oz ( Pack of 3)
    Dove Men + Care Fortfying Shampoo+conditioner 2 in 1 32fl Oz
    Dove Go Fresh Cucumber & Green Tea Scent, Antiperspirant & Deodorant Stick, 1.4 Oz / 40 Ml (Pack of 4)
    Dove Body Wash, Sensitive Skin Pump, 34 Ounce (Pack of 2)
    Dove Body Lotion, Cream Oil Intensive, 13.5 Ounce (Pack of 3)
    Dove Damage Therapy Cool Moisture Shampoo (12 oz) and Conditioner (12 oz)
    Dove Go Fresh Antiperspirant & Deodorant, Cool Essentials - 2.6 oz - 2 pk
    Dove Go Fresh Antiperspirant Deodorant, Restore, 2.6 Ounce (Pack of 2)
    Dove Men+Care Body and Face Bar, Deep Clean 4 oz, 6 Bar
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