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Splatalot: Season 1 | Dove Family Friendly Movie Reviews

Splatalot: Season 1 | Dove Family Friendly Movie Reviews

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Splatalot: Season 1 - What happens when you mix 40 billion gallons of water, three ridiculously challenging obstacle courses, 12 brave contestants, nine ruthless gladiators and one medieval castle? You get Splatalot, the ultimate medieval game show.

Up next, soap wars: Looks like HUL's Dove is taking ITC's Vivel head on - ET BrandEquity

Up next, soap wars: Looks like HUL's Dove is taking ITC's Vivel head on - ET BrandEquity

HUL isn’t new to no-holds-barred campaigns but they are usually restricted to its fiercest global rival Procter & Gamble


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

This study is based on the scenario on the Harrison-Keyes, a global publisher of books, journals, and educational materials. The paper discusses the problems that are faced by the company with its new strategy: e-book publishing. This strategy has been the company’s solution to the current tough competition in the publishing industry. The paper aims to present the problems that are associated with this new strategy and the ways on how the company should handle and solve these problems.

            This study’s objective is to present the importance of having the right organization that fits to the strategy of a company. It aims to determine the effect of the organization to the implementation of a strategy especially a global strategy that can bring changes to the production process, distribution and marketing channel that will demand new ways of organization.

            Harrison-Keyes is a leading global publisher of technical, scientific, business books and journals, professional and consumer books, textbooks and educational reading materials since 1899. The company holds about 22,700 active titles and publishes about 2000 new titles each year. In recent years, the company has felt the competition from low-cost retailers and other publishing industry players. As an answer to this challenge, the company hired a new CEO who strongly proposes a new strategy for the Harrison-Keyes, the e-book publishing.

            With the e-book publishing strategy, many problems arise, from the alignment of the company’s core business to the strategy, to leadership as well as financial problems.

             The basic problem of the company came to the challenge of still gaining the top position in the publishing market by creating another market through the e-book publishing strategy. E-book publishing strategy is basically the publication of books through the internet. A company which utilizes the internet and other advancement in technology should have a good information technology system and information system strategy to capitalize the technology properly. This has been the first problem of Harrison-Keyes, the lack of established information technology system. First of all the CIO of the company lacks a strong background in technology. The company needs a CIO that has strong knowledge and can align the company’s information technology system with the implementation of e-book publishing. In most multinational companies today, both the productivity and competitiveness are dependent on an ability to generate and make use of information (Hillesund, 2001). The information needed for the implementation of e-books is a digital and network based technology for both distributing and reading books which needs technological competence, financial resources and access to information (Hillesund, 2001).

            Moreover, production of e-books has been largely digitized. Writing, layout, and pre-press preparations are computerized and the publishing workflow is all network-based (Hillesund, 2001). This means that the company needs a standardized information system that will make its production reliable. Publishers will no longer be mere producers of paper books, but digital content agents, producing content in several formats and for different distribution channels, Publishers will produce books on paper and on demand in various digital formats, changing the structure of book production (Hillesund, 2001). The traditional information system of Harrison-Keyes will need a great change to adapt to technological changes brought about by e-book publishing. The company needed a strategic plan like updating their systems to fit to the digital content. Publishers like Harrison-Keyes need to relate to new technologies and should meet the special requirements on structuring and formatting of e-books. To be competitive in the world of digital books, a certain level of competence in the area of technology will have to be developed within the organization and more on to the research and development department of the company.

With the leadership of its CIO, Harrison-Keyes could have been started the project by planning it carefully, making sure that the project was backed up by reliable and capable systems, ensuring that all information and resources needed for the project will be distributed and allocated properly. The company basically needs an integrated information system that will help track its authors and books-in-process as well as the sales and royalties. The company needs a CIO that has strong technical qualifications plus a background in finance, marketing and strategic planning. With today’s technology driven industries, the role of the CIO is moving from technical planning and implementation to strategic planning. CIO tends to focus on the planning and implementation of specific information technologies, rather than on long-term company strategy (Anonymous, 1999). The current CIO of Harrison-Keyes lacks most these skills and the company should consider hiring someone more qualified to the current business plans of Harrison –Keyes.

Another problem of the company is the deal and communications with one of the company’s stakeholders, the outsourcing company, Asia Digital Publishing. Harrison-Keyes’ production manager is having a hard time communicating with the company that will format the e-books and is causing a significant delay to the implementation of the e-book project.  The Asia Digital Publishing which was hand-picked by the company’s Executive Vice President for Global Strategy has a good reputation on the business. Looking at the situation, it seems that the problem is in the part of the production manager of Harrison-Keyes. Although he has been in the publishing industry for 25 years, e-books strategy is new to him and with the background of the company’s executive vice president in global strategy and consulting firm, she will not go wrong in picking up a company that should work with Harrison-Keyes.

To solve this issue, Harrison-Keyes might need a staff that will coordinate with Asia Digital, a staff who has good public relation, strong technical background on e-book productions and has good experience dealing with foreign suppliers. A good collaboration with a company that offers formatting for the e-books, along with Digital Rights Management, DRM, website construction maintenance, hosting and payment systems should be established. With the introduction of e-books, the whole production of process of books at Harrison-Keyes will definitely change and the knowledge and understanding of a production manager in the new situation should also be leveraged with the technology used in e-book production.

Another major problem of Harrison-Keyes has also something related to the stakeholders of the e-book supply chain, the authors. A well-known author who has been in the company for years has reservations and fear that his works are at risk of being pirated once becomes digitized. This issue has also put the company’s reputation in bad publicity. The company’s first step to address this problem is to convince the authors that there are existing technologies that will protect their works and prevent piracy. Again, this is another task of the CIO, to conduct researches on the development of new technologies such as encryption and Extensible Rights Markup Language, XrML, that will give protections to authors and the company and it should have been part of the project planning process even before the stakeholders were informed of the e-book project.  There are companies that provide software and Digital Rights Management, DRM, systems for the protection of e-books. The problem with Harrison-Keyes is its being not up to date with the latest in technology.

The management of Harrison-Keyes must also gives emphasis on the advantages of e-books on the part of the authors such as reaching a wider audience than by just publishing in print encouraging new readers by producing e-books in an attractive format; gaining status from the wider dissemination of their publications; and gaining revenue from e-book (JISC, 2003). In order for the project to be successful there should be an alignment of the stakeholders such as the publisher which includes its management, the authors, the suppliers and the outsourcing company. By understanding stakeholders’ issues and striving for solutions, a company can maintain support for its operations and expansion plans (Willis, 2005).

Due to the delay of the launching of the project, financial problems arise in Harrison-Keyes. Due to not well-anticipated project cost, the project needed a cost that is beyond the budget of the company. It seems that the CIO and the CFO of Harrison-Keyes has no good strategic planning team.  Another problem is that there is someone in the management who lacks good corporate ethics and links information outside the company that causes bad publicity.

Summarizing the problems of Harrison-Keyes, its problems include stakeholder misalignments, organizational structure and lack of good information technology system. Generally, Harrison-Keyes has good strategy but its strategy planning and implementation are hindered by many factors such as having the wrong person at a certain position due to lack of appropriate skills and stakeholders misalignment. Most multinational companies undergo reorganization especially when implementing a new project or strategy that will significantly change the company in order to meet new challenges. Basically, the challenges face by the company is to have a certain level of competence in the e-book publishing.

Considering the scenario on Harrison-Keyes, strategy planning and its relationship with the entire organization and the stakeholders should be taken into consideration.

Organizational structure and strategy are essential elements in the formula of sustainable business performance. Sound organizational structure usually means a certain mix and interaction of talented individuals, working in relevant functions and areas of responsibility, sharing knowledge and related assets, behaving responsively and constructively (Wolfe, 2003). When a structure’s elements are properly aligned with one another, that structure facilitates effective implementation of the firm’s strategies (Barth, 2003). Thus, organizational structure is a critical component of effective strategy implementation processes (Barkerna et al., 2002).

Effective organizational structure provides the stability of the firm to successfully implement its strategies and maintain its current competitive advantages that will be needed for its future strategies (Ireland et al., 2003). A firm’s structure specifies the work to be done and how to do it, given the firm’s strategy or strategies (Jenster & Hussey, 1997). Thus organizational structure influences how managers work and the decisions resulting from that work (Schilling et al, 2001).

Selection of new strategy calls for changes to an organizational structure especially when inefficiencies force it to do so. (Chandler, 1962). Some top-level managers hesitate to conclude that there are problems with the firm’s structure or strategy. Because of these inertial tendencies, structural change is often induced by the actions of stakeholders who are no longer willing to tolerate the firm’s performance.

Harrison-Keyes exhibits a functional type of organizational structure. Functional structure is a structure consisting of a chief executive officer, CEO, and a limited corporate staff with functional line managers in dominant organizational areas such as production, accounting, marketing, research and development, engineering and human resources. This structure allows for functional specialization, thereby facilitating active sharing of knowledge within each functional area. The negative effect of a functional orientation like this is on communication and coordination among those representing different organizational functions. Because of this, the CEO must work hard to verify that the decisions and actions of individual business functions promote the entire firm rather than a single function.

Analyzing Harrison-Keyes’ organizational structure, the new CEO is highly driven by technology while it CFO is not conformed to the new strategy. The company has roster of talents with its executive vice president who has knowledge in global strategy; with its vice president for marketing which is said to be creative; and with its head of the implementation team who seeks for promotion and seems to exert effort to get his promotion.

On the other hand, the company seems to be not ready with the implementation of e-books due to its current CIO who lacks understanding of new technologies and interpretation on how these technologies can be applied to the advantage of the business; financial background to properly set IT investment priorities to achieve business goals; knowledge management and knowledge creation.

The e-book publishing strategy is greatly dependent on new technology so the company needs a reliable CIO that can effectively develop, implement and align information technology strategy of the company with the implementation of e-book publishing. The CIOs of today plays key roles in strategic planning due to the driving force of technology and information.   

The company’s production manager although has years of experience in publishing, e-book publishing is entirely different to traditional publishing and therefore should also has to be replaced by someone more knowledgeable of e-books production and process or the company can add another production manager that will be assigned solely on the implementation of e-books.

            The main reason behind Harrison-Keyes implementation of e-book publishing is to maintain long-term competitive success which is kind of international strategy. International strategies also allow the firm to search for new markets, resources, core competencies, and technologies as part of its effort to outperform competitors (Begley et al, 2003). Therefore, an effective organizational structure is necessary for its implementation. Global operations such as e-book publishing need proper matching of strategies and organizational structure for coordination and control.

A strategy designed to achieve growth will be ineffective without the appropriate organization of a company’s talent and resources. As a company grows or implements a strategy that causes change to the company, it has to evolve its organizational structure to ensure optimal performance and to deal with changing priorities and business complexity. However, reorganization is a high-risk activity that represents a shock to the corporation, is personal to employees and can result in an erosion of performance. To address the risks associated with reorganization, companies need to be aware of key success factors when implementing reorganization initiatives and to initiate systematic communications plan to influence perceptions ay all levels and stakeholders within the organization (Goold and Campbell, 2002).

            Having the right people in place allows a company to face changes and growth. Management needs to attract right people, train them properly if necessary and position them at the right position that can help the company pursue its purpose and meets the reasonable expectations of stakeholders.



Unilever global company website

Dove is committed to helping women realise their personal potential for beauty by engaging them with products that deliver real care.

How Dove Empowered Real Women And Achieved Success in 80+ Countries - Word-of-Mouth and Referral Marketing Blog

How Dove Empowered Real Women And Achieved Success in 80+ Countries - Word-of-Mouth and Referral Marketing Blog

Word-of-Mouth and Referral Marketing Blog

Dove is a personal care brand owned by Unilever originating in the United Kingdom, whose products are sold in more than 80 countries and are offered for both women and men. The company was slow to take off with a lack of global identity and a decentralized product. There wasn’t much of a corporate strategy …

Marketing Mix of Dove - Dove Marketing Mix and 4 Ps

Marketing Mix of Dove - Dove Marketing Mix and 4 Ps


Here is the Marketing mix of Dove which is a subsidiary of its parent company Unilever and is associated with personal care. It is a Flagship brand of HUL.



Unilever Malaysia

Dove – Campaign For Real Beauty.


by (Sanjul Kumar) @ DOVE DEEP PURE FACE WASH

For any product in the market, product hierarchy follows a top down approach. It is developed from the basic need that prompts the customer to look out for a particular product to the final product.

During the course of satisfying this need the customer goes through the following:

  • Need or the requirement of a particular product to satisfy its need
  • The need is filtered towards a product family such as skin care, hair care, dental etc.
  •   Product class is next which can be called as the subset of the product family umbrella. E.g.  face wash under skin care.
  •  Product Line refers to the brand customer is looking for. Generally the customer looks out for a trusted brand
  •  Brand variant comes under product type which tells what kind of the product customer wants to  fulfil its requirement
  • .Finally we have the item which is the SKU or the final product variant of the brand.

According to Kotler, “The product hierarchy stretches from basic needs to particular items that satisfy those needs”.

 We can identify six levels of product hierarchy and trace the hierarch of the marketing diary product as follows:

1.      Need family
The customer figures out a need or requirement which sets out the customer on a mission to satisfy his requirement through various options. The core need underlies the existence of a product family.

In the product I have taken Dove Deep Pure face wash we can say that the need of personal hygiene specially for cleanliness of face which is the most noticeable part of a person’s body helped the customer to think in the direction of skin care for the face.

Need: Personal hygiene

2.      Product family
All product classes that can satisfy a core need with reasonable effectiveness. This primarily includes all the product classes that fall under the requirement.
With reference to personal hygiene like in case of Dove, we can consider product classes such as :
·         Skin care
·         Hair care

Family : Skin care

3.      Product class
A group of products within the product family recognized as having a certain functional coherence, also known as product category.

In case of Dove, which a big b

Class: Face wash

4.      Product line
A group of products within a product class that are closely related because they perform similar function, are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed through the same outlets or channels, or fall within given price ranges. A product line may consist of different brands, or a single family brand, or individual brand that has been line extended.

Line: Dove

5.      Product type
A group of items within a product line that share one of several possible forms of the product. It represents the product line along with the product class.

Type: Dove face wash (beauty face wash)

6.      Item
A distinct unit within a brand or product line distinguishable by size, price, appearance, or some other attribute. It is also called as the stock keeping unit SKU or the product variant.

Item: Dove Deep Pure face wash
Size:  50g
Price: Rs.90/-


A product system is a group of diverse but related items that function in a compatible manner. A product mix (also called a product assortment) is the set of all products and items a particular seller offers.

A company’s product mix has certain width, length, depth and consistency.

1.      Width
Refers to how many product lines a company carries.

Dove : skin care, hair therapy

2.      Length
Refers to total number of items in the mix.

Body wash, Body lotion, Face wash, Hair care

3.      Depth
How many variants are offered of each product in the line.

Product variants include Dove Deep Pure, Dove Go fresh, Dove pore cleaning, Dove anti acne.

4.      Consistency
How closely related the various product lines are in end use, production requirements, distribution channels, or some other way.


How Patanjali Uses Modern Brand Strategy To grow Past Competitors - OfficeChai

How Patanjali Uses Modern Brand Strategy To grow Past Competitors - OfficeChai


The saffron-clad Baba's forecast was quite eye-catching too - he thinks the brand will double revenues to Rs. 10,000 crores (~USD 1.5 billion) in India by next year, 2017 - which would effectively take them past two other-decades old companies - Nestle and Procter & Gamble - and leave Patanjali second only to Unilever in India, all in just about 10 years.So what helped them grow this fast?

Marketing planning and forecasting sales potential

by (Miki Liu) @ Miki Liu

For the break down approach, according to the market potential and general economic date, Dove could expand the business market. As we all know, Dove is focusing on consumers, sometimes Dove also could have cooperation with business companies to improve themselves.
Firstly, the reason why the company should write a marketing plan for the Dutch market for Dove is that it is propitious to recognize local market such as the situation of Dutch social economy and situation of Dutch market supply and demand. Secondly, to do the marketing plan is also positive to realize the specific demand of products. For example, which kinds of small of Dove’s shampoo would be favorite for Dutch consumers? Which shape of Dove’s clean Bar would be attractive for Dutch consumers? Finally, writing a marketing plan is an advantage for the producing of new products. Though the investigation, Dove will know if there is any free space to the new products. Because people in different countries will have different interests and different areas will have different situation, the marketing plan for a particular area is essential. In addition, in order to write a marketing plan, it needs majority of time, labour power and funds. If the company does not have abundant capital, the marketing plan will be to difficult to do it.
If Dove would like to develop a sales forecast for the years 2016, 2017 and 2018, the trend analysis and correlation coefficients. One of the trend analysis’s advantage is that it can identify areas where company business is preforming well and identify the areas where the company business is underperforming (Queensland Goverment, 2016). Besides the trend analysis can help Dove to know the changes of financial operation so that Dove can predict the direction to future development. In addition, there are also some disadvantages. For example, it is different to select the base year for the propose of ascertaining the trend. Otherwise, comparison will be of no value. Then trend analysis is useless in inflationary situations, the trends of data will present a misleading result (Subho, 2016). For correlation coefficients, it is easier to find out what kind of factors will influence the sales. However, correlation coefficients analysis only can find out the relationship, it cannot explain the reason why there is a relation (Filipowich, 2016). Then sometimes a correlative finding does not reveal which variable affects the other, for example, rich people will not buy Dove.

Filipowich, M. (2016). What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Correlation Research? Retrieved from eHow Contributor:
Guest. (2015, July 30). SocialTimes. Retrieved from 10 Brands Doing an Amazing Job on Social Media:
Queensland Goverment. (2016, June 24). Trend analysis for business improvement. Retrieved from Queensland Goverment:
Subho, S. (2016). Trend Analysis: Advantages and Disadvantages | Financial Statement Analysis. Retrieved from YOUR ARTICLE LIBRARY:

The Dove Company and Its History

by (Miki Liu) @ Miki Liu

For the Marketing Environment, the Dove shampoo is chosen by me to investigate. The reason why I choose the Dove is that the Dove is generally using in people’s daily life, even my family is using the Dove shampoo, so I have interest in the Dove. How can they expand their product portfolio to the whole world? What kind of strategies did they use to attract the consumers? Finally, I decided the Dove to be my product.

The Unilever is the producing company of the product and the Unilever is also the owner of the brand name. According to the research, the Dove is the flagship of Unilever in personal care category with US$2.5 billion turnover (SUPERBRANDS, 2016).

The Dove brand started in 1957 in the USA with the revolutionary new beauty cleansing Bar. On the one hand, the Dove promised that it would keep smooth and soft after using the cleansing Bar (Unilever, 2016). Then the Dove has been trusted by consumers. On the other hand, dermatologists recommended the Dove in the US, Canada and France at the first, next it strongly endorsed by dermatologists around the world (Unilever, 2016). The Dove develops rapidly in the personal care products marketing, between 1991 and 1994, Dove was launched in 55 countries and Dove started to become popular during families. The investigation of the first quarter of 2005, Dove had become the number one women’s cosmetic brand with a 3% market share (SUPERBRANDS, 2016). Now the Dove already became one of the €1 billion brands in the Unilever (Unilever, 2015).

The Dove are focusing on the personal care and it is well-known by the smoothly Bar, but there is no doubt that the Dove has different kinds of products. According to the research, the Dove already expanded their field to the washing and bathing, skin care and antiperspirant deodorants, such as Original Cream Beauty Bathing Bar, Essential Nourishment Body Lotion and Original Antiperspirant Deodorant which are producing by Dove (Dove, 2016)


Dove. (2016). washing-and-bathing. Retrieved from Dove:
Guest. (2015, July 30). SocialTimes. Retrieved from 10 Brands Doing an Amazing Job on Social Media:
SUPERBRANDS. (2016). Dove. Retrieved from Dove:
Unilever. (2015). Annual Report and Accounts 2015. Retrieved from Annual Report and Accounts 2015:

Unilever. (2016). Dove. Retrieved from Unilever:

Welcome to Dove

Welcome to Dove

Dove UK

Looking for hair products, skin care and deodorant to leave you looking and feeling beautiful? With tricks, tips, and products built on expert care, Dove can help.

Introduction To Brand Management

by (william oakley) @ Introduction To Brand Management

Brands are important for every type of organizations, irrespective of the nature, geographical regions, or size of the business. A well established brand not just develops an image or identity, but also contributes a lot in the financial and economic performance of the company. It is the intellectual asset of a company which needs to be managed as carefully as the other resources, like human, financial, and physical. Brand management decisions are not made just for a specific period of time, but in a strategic perspective. 


Basically brand management is an important branch of marketing management. The biggest reason for why brand management is done is to make brand loving customers, who will not only prefer you over all its competitors but will also be a source of bringing new customers for the company. A brand is needed to truly represent the unique features, characteristics, and quality level of the product of a company, and developing its ever-lasting, idiosyncratic, and distinctive perception in the minds of the customers.


Brands subsist for the core motive of matching the brand value with the customer's wants. If a company's performance continuously keeps on declining, the first thing which comes to mind as the reason is poor financial and human resource management or failure to meet customers' expectations by the company's products or services. Brands are established with a commitment to gain the customers' confidence in the company. For this, a company not just has to meet, but exceed the customers' expectations. Brands fail due to many reasons: some brands come in the market and suddenly vanish out because the market share was already captured by the existing companies and there was no room for new entrants in the mature market or they fail to do appropriate brand management.

Strategic Management of British Airways Company

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Strategic Management of British Airways Company



            Transportation plays an essential role to the success of many businesses and organizations. Without efficient transportation, many supplies and raw materials will not be brought from one place to another. It has been reported that humans have always needed to get around from place to place, making the act of walking a limitation on the distance traveled and the things they could carry. Consider the innovations that help humans travel around and transport cargo, including automobiles, ships, and airplanes (2006). Through these innovations, humans were able to effectively and efficiently move from one place to the next with the convenience of bringing luggage and cargo.

Today, through transportation, humans were able to make trade relations with one another. Many business organizations make it a point to travel to different cities and countries to promote their products and services. Traveling and promotion are now part of an organization’s strategic management. From this, airlines play a major importance in the success of business organizations around the world. Business organizations are able to widen their market by traveling to different places via the airlines. Their importance leads us to evaluate their strategies in dealing with their business. This paper aims to discuss the strategic management of a specific airline company and assess its effectiveness in the business.


British Airways Airline Company

            It has been reported that the British Airways is the largest airline of the United Kingdom and one of the largest in the world, with more flights from Europe across the Atlantic than any other operator ( 2006). British Airways flies to over 550 destinations and to more than 130 countries worldwide, including London, major European centers such as Paris and Frankfurt, and Asian hubs like Hong Kong, Singapore and Bangkok (2005). This airline is synonymous with excellent service and quality and has always been regarded as a leader in the airline industry, and serves more than 35 million passengers annually. Its history traces back to 1924 when the five small British independent airlines merged under state guidance to form Imperial Airways. At present, British Airways operates out of London’s two main ports, namely Heathrow, which is the world’s largest international airport, and Gatwick (2005).

            For its travel classes, the British Airways offers four cabins. The first cabin is complete with fully flat seats, each in its own cocoon-style area with a seat for a companion to join the passenger for meals or for a chat. The second cabin is called the Club World, having flat bed sleeper seats. The third cabin is the World Traveller Plus, a premium economy services, offering more room in-flight and dedicated check-in desks, and the last cabin is the World Traveller, which is the airline’s economy, or coach class ( 2006).   


Strategy Review of the British Airways

            Strategic management is that set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of a corporation, and includes aspects such as environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and evaluation and control ( 2006). Strategic management is important for every business, as it determines its success in the market, in its formulation and implementation of projects. One of the strategies of airlines is alliances or merges. Alliancing in airline industry seems persistent, as every international airline is forging alliances of some form, which can be traced as far back as the 1940s (2004). From a strategic perspective, airline alliances have become an inherent part of the task environment of airlines (2004). Alliances are beneficial for airlines in its control and maintenance on the business. Similarly, this strategy was adopted by the British Airways for better service. On March 31, 1924, Britain’s four airlines, namely, Instone, Handley Page, Daimler Airways, and British Air Marine Navigation merged to form Imperial Airways (2006b). However, during this time a number of smaller UK airline companies had started their operations, so in 1935, these airlines merged to form the original privately owned British Airways Ltd. The British Government in 1939 nationalized the airlines and after the Second World War, the airlines were combined to form the British Airways in 1974 (2006b). The driving factor behind alliances is long-term profitability, and their formation tends to be for strategic reasons, such as accessing larger markets, establishing global brand loyalty and building hub-to-hub traffic (1998). This move is advantageous for the airline to service more passengers and establish market reputation. Alliances or merges are part their strategic management plan, as being part of the strategy formulation and implementation. Strategy formulation and implementation is an on-going, never-ending, integrated process requiring continuous reassessment and reformation, is dynamic, and involves a complex pattern of actions and reactions ( 2006). Being dynamic, airlines tend to always innovate and improve their actions to further enhance the quality of their service.

            In addition, another way for the British Airways to cope with serious competition from other airlines, it continuously provides itself changes and innovation for better services. Strategic management, having its characteristic of being dynamic and complex, enables the British Airways to accommodate change. This change is done by improving the amenities of the airlines and developing new information systems as added services. It remains to be the world’s international airline and the first airline to offer jet passenger services, the first to operate weather-beating auto landings, the first to offer supersonic passenger services, and the first in the modern era to offer fully-flat beds (2006c). Due to the mentioned services, the British Airways were able to build a good reputation in the market and gain the trust of many customers. These has widened their industry and made the airlines to be “the world’s most favorite airline”.


Core Business

             British Airways is based at London Heathrow Airport in London, England, and has a commanding presence at Gatwick and Manchester International Airport. It has succeeded in dominating Heathrow to the point that the airport is commonly referred to as Fortress Heathrow within both the airline and its competitors (2006a). It serves flights to destinations in the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, Malaysia, India, France, Germany and other major countries around the world.

            Currently, British Airways has a modern fleet with an average age of 9.7 years, and consists of Airbus A319-100, A320-100, A320-200, Boeing 737-300, 737-400, 737-500, 747-400, 757-200, 767-300ER, 777-200, and 777-200ER (2006b). The type of aircraft, aircraft number, capacity and destinations are shown in the table.






Airbus A319-100



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Airbus A320-100



Being replaced by Boeing 737-500

Airbus A320-200

(7 on order)


Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Airbus A321-200

(3 on order)


Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 737-300



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 737-400



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 737-500



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 747-400



Long haul international routes

Boeing 757-200



Short haul European and UK domestic routes

Boeing 767-300ER



Long haul and short haul routes to the Caribbean, the USA and Europe

Boeing 777-200



Long haul routes

Boeing 777-200ER



Long haul routes

From ( 2006a)


            Moreover, the British Airways have franchises from other airlines including the British Mediterranean Airways since 1997, the COM air in South Africa since 1996, the GB Airways of UK since 1995, the Loganair in UK since 1994, and the Sun Air in Denmark since 1996 (2006a). Due to these alliances, the British Airways were able to produce large sum of profits, shown in the table below.


Year ended

Passengers flown [4]

Turnover (£m)

Profit/loss before tax (£m)

Net profit/loss (£m)

Basic eps (p)

31 March 2006






31 March 2005






31 March 2004






31 March 2003






31 March 2002






31 March 2001






31 March 2000






31 March 1999






31 March 1998






31 March 1997






31 March 1996






From (‘British Airways’ 2006a)


Strategic Changes

            Demand for air travel has declined since four planes were hijacked and used to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The world’s favorite airline, the British Airways, is one of the airlines that have been forced to cut jobs and routes ( 2001). Due to the incident, more problems bombard the company, such as the global slowdown in the travel industry, the lower demand for bookings, fuel costs rise sharply, insurance costs going up, and higher airport taxes ( 2001). From these obstacles, the company saw the need for strategic changes in attracting the market.

            As a solution to this decline, the airline offered improved amenities, including sleeper seats, in an attempt to lure business travelers at the expense of economy class customers ( 2001). It has unveiled £600 million worth of new customer services and products, which is the biggest investment of its kind in airline history, including flat beds in its ‘Club World’ long haul business cabin. Furthermore, the airline has added legroom in its ‘World Traveller Plus’ section. With this sections, British Airways passengers can now upgrade from traditional economy on extended flights without paying for a Club ticket (  2005).

            In addition, due to the arising problems in the company, the president, Bob Ayling attempted to have a merger with American Airlines, but failed due to regulatory problems ( 2001). With this, different presidents of the company did many more attempts to revive its reputation and decreasing performance.

            Moreover, in 2005, Cisco Systems and Prime Business Solutions announced a major network convergence project for British Airways to improve its communications for 14,000 offices and airport staffs. This project marks the sale of Cisco’s five millionth Internet Protocol (IP) telephone system, which is being developed and implemented by Cisco Gold Certified Partner, Prime, and will be the largest of its kind in the airline industry worldwide ( 2005). This improvement in the system of British Airways reduces costs and improves productivity through the integration of all voice and data communications onto a single network. It allows British Airways to remove the cost of inter-office telephone calls and will streamline the management and provisioning of telephony services throughout the company ( 2005). Furthermore, the networked capabilities of Cisco’s IP phone system will make the relocation of communications services quicker and easier (  2005). With this advantage, British Airways deployed 8,500 Cisco IP phone system to the company, and the project was completed in March 2006 ( 2005).



            The role of British Airways in the transportation industry is an important factor for many business organizations. With this, it is necessary to conclude that the British Airways continue to improve their innovations and systems as their strategies of developing their company. These are in accordance to their aim of increasing their profit and for rendering better services to their customers. With better services, the company can persist on maintaining their established reputation and image to their market. With their strategies, such as the mergers, and improvement of amenities and services, the company can attract more customers and can guarantee more improved service to many passengers and airline staff. These would not only generate more profit and prestige for the airline company, but would also foster harmony and good working environment for each employee. Continuous innovation and improvement in British Airways can sometimes produce problems, but with good leadership and company maintenance, development can be achieved properly and efficiently.

The Best Dish Soap

The Best Dish Soap

The Sweethome

After more than 65 hours of research and testing 28 detergents, we found Seventh Generation Dish Liquid to be the best for most people.

US ads go after the competition

US ads go after the competition

BBC News

American advert makers are unafraid to name brands' competitors directly. The BBC looks at the established but unspoken rules governing the trade.

Three Brand Management Theories

by (william oakley) @ Introduction To Brand Management

There are many theories relating to the brand management techniques, but those which also tell the strategies to perform better are discussed below:

1. Theory of Brand Loyalty:

The theory of brand loyalty explains the relationship of customers' psychology with the brand of a company. According to this theory, the positive behavior of a customer towards a brand has three different aspects: Emotional attachment, Brand evaluation, and Behavioral aspect. The first aspect relates to the emotional attachment of customer with the brand. That is, how much he likes or dislikes a product. If this is positive, he will always be inclined to buy this product and will never go to even check other companies' products.

2. The Branding Theory:

This theory provides guidance on some important typical components of brand management including;

  1. The assignment of a specific name to the brand which can portray the business standards,
  2. Then making the people aware of this brand,
  3. Try to provide what they want,
  4. Establish a relationship with your very first customers, and then keep on growing
  5. And try to reach the top with no compromise in any function of brand development.
3. The Value-based brand Theory:

This theory explains that the value-based brands are intended to build long term customer value. The success all depends upon the value which the brand delivers to the customers. The value-based brand theory argues that the customer is the supreme spirited contrivance to defeat the competitors. It says a brand's life blood is the customer, nothing else.

Budget Airlines in Hong Kong: Oasis Hong Kong Airlines

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Budget Airlines in Hong Kong: Oasis Hong Kong Airlines



            Rev. Raymond C. Lee and his loving wife, Priscilla, founded Oasis Hong Kong Airlines in October 2006. Their reason is to provide long-haul travel accessible and available to all passengers. Because their aim is to provide access and availability of long-hauled flights to all passengers, they provided low-cost fares and the opportunity for passengers to customize their flight experiences by offering either business or economy class trips. Through their vision and mission, which is based on biblical principles of having a deep respect for all races, creeds, religions, Oasis Hong Kong Airlines extends its dedication of providing affordable and accessible business and leisure trips to all passengers. This provides all passengers with low fares and high quality and standards of comfort, safety, and service, thus, contributing to the building of an aviation culture in Hong Kong that helps to strengthen Hong Kong’s position, being the leading aviation hub in the whole of Asia Pacific. At present, the airlines fly daily non-stop between Hong Kong, from Hong Kong International Airport, and London in Gatwick Airport, and six times weekly between Hong Kong and Vancouver, Canada. In the future, Oasis Hong Kong Airlines plans to add routes and services to Europe and North America, thus, changing the future of long-haul travel to and from Asia (2007).


            From this brief history and information about Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, it can be understood that the positive intentions of the airlines transcends not only in providing services and convenience to customers, but also in offering and helping the city of Hong Kong with its advantage in terms of tourism, economy, and technology. With this, it would be helpful and essential to analyze the advantages, strategies, and the competitive advantages of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines in the market.


PEST Analysis

            The PEST Analysis establishes a good analysis of the external effects on a company by breaking them into essential and obvious sorts. External factors or the macro-environment of a specific organization, such as the Oasis Hong Kong Airlines pertains to the outside factors that the organization has no control of. This analysis should be done in order to assess the different factors that may serve to the future problems of the organization in terms of its operations in the market.


  • Political – Political aspects include government policies and regulations, legal issues, and formal and informal rules, from which the organization must base its operations (2007).


For the Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, the political factors that it must take note of include travel policies and restrictions of the British government, and other countries from which it wishes to operate. This is in line with the additional security imposed by the government of the United Kingdom in battling terrorism and threats in their country.


            In addition, Oasis Hong Kong Airlines must also comply with other agreements, such as its Open Skies Agreements with the United States, which would serve to open the aviation industry of Hong Kong to other countries. However, many more barriers can be identified, such as the restrictions in air services agreements or ASAs, alliances, mergers between carriers, limited access to airport infrastructures and ground handling services, access to computer reservation systems, and code-sharing arrangements (2000). 


  • Economic – Economic aspects of the business affect the purchasing power of customers or passengers, and the cost of capital of the organization (2007).


            Economic factors that must be taken note of by Oasis Hong Kong Airlines include additional taxes, increase in oil and commodity prices, increase in ticket prices, and global exchange rates.


            It has been reported that Hong Kong’s aviation industry contributes largely to its economy, being an international trading center in the Asian region. Its air transport contributed 8.1% in Hong Kong’s GDP in 1998, along with the employment of 325,851 individuals in both the import/export and tourism industries (2000). In 2006, new records were set by the Hong Kong International Airport, with passenger estimates of 9.1% and cargo throughput of 5.2%, thus, producing a total of 44.45 million passengers and 3.58 million metric tons of cargo ( 2007). In this regard, it can be seen that tourism and the import/export industries in Hong Kong serve to be the primary contributory factors in its economic activity. However, because the Hong Kong dollar is still dependent on the US dollar, changes in the value of the US dollar can still affect the purchasing power of the Hong Kong dollar.


  • Sociological – This includes the demographic and cultural aspects of the macro-environment of the organization. Sociological factors affect the needs of the customers and size of its market (2007).


            For the Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, sociological factors include the conflict regarding the physical conditions of customers, their different shopping patterns, their business intentions or career patterns, and the safety of Hong Kong. It has been reported that Hong Kong boasts an impressive array of human resources that includes not only mainland Chinese who have been educated and trained in the West, but also a standing force of lawyers, accountants, and other professionals hailing from every corner of the world ( 2002). The role of the educational attainment, demographics, and occupation of the citizens of Hong Kong would suggest the increased rate of travel to other countries, along with their intention of availing of cheaper services.


  • Technological – Factors under technology include e-commerce, Research and Development initiatives, automation, and technological changes, which reduce entry barriers, lowers costs of production, and influence outsourcing decisions ( 2007).


In this regard, Hong Kong uses both hard and soft technologies, where hard technology refers to specifications of goods and the mechanism of production, while soft technology refers to business process that includes organization, marketing, and managerial knowledge and skills (2003). As such, the use of advanced technology and information systems in Hong Kong, most especially through the World Wide Web and e-commerce would contribute significantly to the technological aspects of the business.


Aviation Market of Hong Kong

            To be able to identify and understand the aviation market or aviation industry of Hong Kong, its different characteristics must first be determined. Hong Kong has only one airport, the Hong Kong International Airport, reaching half of the world’s population within a flying time of only five hours, 24 hours a day. It has two runways, handles more than 49 aircraft movements per hour, and reaches over 130 cities around the world (2003). The Hong Kong International Airport has a significant role in the economy of Hong Kong, as air transportation activities are being serviced, including network and product externality. The hub-and-spoke operations in the airport provides additional route to its existing network, the network externality, while freight and passenger transports are its product externality, being complementary products of air services ( 2000). In addition, market entry barriers do not exist in Hong Kong for most products, along with the lack of tariffs on aviation products ( 2003), a sound judicial system, and low business taxes (2000). As such, it has been the most important source of international capital for Mainland China, as it provides a unique platform for business environments that is already familiar and supportive for many years in doing business, making an unrivalled wealth of knowledge in the future. The market of Hong Kong is also a channel for foreign capital into the Mainland, being its information hub for exploring business opportunities in Asia ( 2002). In this regard, it can be perceived that the extent or range of activities in Hong Kong serves to fuel its aviation industry, as it serves to be an effective and efficient means of enhancing and improving the economic advantages of Hong Kong.


            Certain advantages to the economy of Hong Kong can be identified, as the contributions of its aviation industry. Primarily, the aviation industry of Hong Kong has contributed a lot to its transportation activities, which accounts for the transport of passengers, cargo, and mail. In this regard, the transfer of cargo and passengers from Hong Kong to other parts of the world is being facilitated more effectively and in lesser extent of time, compared to sea travel. With Hong Kong’s aviation industry, more and more visitors and tourists are able to visit the city, thus, contributing to its tourism industry. According to the Hong Kong Tourism Board, on the 2004 Hong Kong Tourism Statistics, the total amount that visitors spent on entertainment was HK$ 1641 million ( 2005). With the development of its aviation industry, visitors and tourists have been visiting attractions known in Hong Kong, such as the new Hong Kong Disneyland, Ocean Park, Ngong Ping 360, and many others. Because Hong Kong’s tourism activities are enhanced by its aviation industry, its economy would also be developed, as tourism and economy goes hand-in-hand. The influx of tourists and visitors in Hong Kong can help gain huge revenues with the increase in tourist travel. This can prompt the government of Hong Kong to come up and create more tourists destinations and hotels, which can generate job opportunities. Along with this, the development and improvement of Hong Kong’s aviation industry and market provided the city to improve its export and import activities, which opened opportunities for increased foreign investments. As such, both local and international businesses are being enhanced in order to improve the economy of Hong Kong. In this regard, the aviation industry of Hong Kong has become a primary means for the city to participate in globalization. Globalization enables Hong Kong to exchange goods, services, financial capital, and knowledge with other countries ( 2006), thus, further enhancing the economic activities of the city. Last advantage brought about by Hong Kong’s aviation industry is the increase in competition. Increase in competition in the aviation industry offers improvement and variety in terms of services. Competition allows organizations to further develop and enhance their services, thus, making the aviation industry with growth and advancement.


            In relation to competition in the aviation industry of Hong Kong, several airlines can be identified, serving to be the rivals or competitors of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines. Two airlines, namely, Dragonair and Cathay Pacific Airways, Hong Kong’s major home carriers, serve to be the tight competitors of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines. Cathay Pacific Airways is one of the leading companies in the world’s airline industry in terms of volume of sales and profitability. It has also one of the widest connections among other international airline companies made possible through global networking. At present, it operates scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 104 destinations around the world, and ranks as the World’s Best Airline in 2003 and 2005 (2007). It currently operates a total of 106 aircrafts comprised by Boeings and Airbuses, with an average age of 7 years (2007). Dragonair is the second largest airline in Hong Kong, next to Cathay Pacific, and operates both cargo and passenger networks that reach a variety of destinations in the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, and the Middle East ( 2007). It currently operates 37 Boeings and Airbuses, with 400 flights a week to Mainland China ( 2007). Given the market of Hong Kong and the different airlines that can accommodate that market, it can be understood that the aviation or airline industry of Hong Kong can serve customers effectively and efficiently. This would not have been the evaluation in terms of Hong Kong’s aviation industry, if Hong Kong has not become China’s main entry port of business, foreign investments, tourism, and other economic activities. As such, it can be perceived that through the aviation industry of Hong Kong, the different economic, political, sociological, and technological aspects have been developed and improved.  


Competitive Position of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines

            In order to know and analyze the competitive position of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, the theory of competitive advantage must first be taken note of. It has been mentioned that competition serves to be one of the means of the development of any industry, including the aviation industry. In this regard, competition serves to be the driving factor of improvement and development of the different airlines in Hong Kong. This emphasizes the concept of competitive advantage in the aviation industry, which refers to the edge of a particular organization over its competitors that is brought about its planned actions and strategies in terms of its market, operations, and management. This concept emphasizes all the important aspects in the operations and management of a certain organization, including suppliers, prices, resources, and capabilities. One of the theories of competitive advantage is the Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage. This theory emphasizes the combination of the internal and external strategies, where internal perspectives refer to the organization’s core competence and the external perspectives refer to the structure of the industry (1985). In this theory, the resources of the organization are being assessed to determine its needed strategy for its perceived success in the market. In addition, Porter’s Competitive Rivalry can also be used in the analysis of Oasis competitive advantage. In this regard, it must be recognized that the company has many equally attractive competitors, making the airlines having little power in the situation (2007). In this sense, if the airlines can offer other services unlike the products and services of its competitors, then it can win its competitive advantage.  


            Using this theory on competitive advantage and Porter’s Competitive Rivalry, the competitive position of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines can be determined. Because resource-based competitive advantage emphasizes on the resources of the organization in focus, it can be perceived that the success of Oasis over its competitors can be brought about by its use of available sources. Primarily, the competitive advantage of Oasis Airlines lies on the fact that it was able to meet the needs of its customers. Meeting the needs of customers emphasizes the notion that customers at this time are more knowledgeable, more analytical, more demanding, and provide more strategic information (2000). This also emphasizes the fact that customers nowadays are not satisfied only with few products, and thus need a variety of products to satisfy their demands and needs. With the increase in the development and improvement in terms of the economy and tourism of Hong Kong, the organization saw the opportunity of providing new alternatives for passengers and cargo that may compete with the existing airlines in the city. In addition, because the airline is relatively new to the market, the analytical and more demanding characteristics of consumers would enable them to try the service being offered by Oasis Airlines. In this regard, the airline has taken advantage of the curiosity of its market.


            Another competitive advantage of Oasis Airlines over its competitors is its flexibility, by custom designing solutions for the airlines’ customers, in anticipating their needs (2007). Customizing the needs of its passengers led the airlines to offer two hot meals and soft drinks for free on both classes, free service of snacks and alcoholic drinks for the business class, free headphones, blankets and pillows in both classes, purchase of noise-canceling headphones and amenity kits, and having a seat-back TV with at least 16 channels, along with 12 channels of audio (2007). In addition to such services is the emphasis of Oasis Airlines of the significant role Information Technology play in its performance. Michael Wirth, the airlines’ head of Information Technology pointed out that the organization’s IT plays an intrinsic part in their corporate development, as it supports the airlines’ new generation business distribution model. Through the Information Technology of Oasis Airlines, the airline is able to implement its direct distribution model, which enables passengers to directly buy tickets from the company through its web site. In this regard, the challenging part of implementing this model is to make the system secured, convenient and safe ( 2007). In relation to this is the adopted IT system of Oasis Airlines is its distribution system, which has three major channels, namely, consumer-direct, direct through-trade, and indirect through-trade. Through the indirect through-trade system, tickets are sold over the Global Distribution System, where travel agencies are connected and bring the airlines with wider reach and extent. Through the direct through-trade and consumer-direct channels, tickets are directly sold to consumers through the World Wide Web, and through their application of the Oasis Smart.Net service ( 2007). These distribution channels indeed increase the competitive advantage of the airlines, as they target the direct distribution of their tickets to further reduce the costs and spending of their consumers. In this regard, it can be perceived that in this competitive advantage, Porter’s Supplier Power and Buyer Power can be recognized. Through the distinctive and unique features of the airlines, it can be observed that the uniqueness of service of the airlines is attributed to its suppliers, which have the ability to substitute and make the features of the airlines cost-effective while meeting the demands of the passengers. On the other hand, the buyer power of the customers is also observed, as related to this particular competitive advantage, as being cost-effective, the passengers would be able to purchase services from the company to avail of its services. Because the features of the airlines are more user-friendly, and its price more affordable than its competitors, targeting low-spending customers would be easy to do.


            One of the most important aspects of an organization’s competitive advantage is its team or employees. In this regard, teamwork and team leadership is being emphasized and becomes the source of the strength and cooperation of the whole organization. With regards to team leadership, both the roles and responsibilities of the team leader and his or her members interact with one another in order to fulfill their goals and objectives. Likewise, Oasis Airlines believes so. It has been reported that the airline is comprised only of a small team, having only a handful of employees that serve cross-departmental functions (2007). In this regard, the few employees comprising the organization have become one of the competitive advantages of the airlines. This is because it can be perceived that because the organization has lesser employees, dissipating information and knowledge is easier for them to control and manage, compared to larger organizations. Most employees comprising Oasis Airlines perform a number of functions and tasks, thus, making it easier for the organization to facilitate communication and responsibilities.


            Last and most important competitive advantage of Oasis Airlines is their cheap ticket prices compared with their competitors. It has been reported that the price of a business class ticket offered by Oasis Airlines can be comparable to the price of an economy class ticket in other airlines ( 2007). This is line with the goal or objective of the airlines to provide its customers with affordable and available services that would suit their budget. In this regard, this strategy of the airlines is to raise the competition in the aviation industry of Hong Kong and to provide potential customers with convenience and quality at a lower cost. However, basing on Porter’s Threat of Substitution, it can be perceived that some airlines would be offering cheap prices similar to the strategy of Oasis Airlines. This is because, they deem that cheaper tickets would be more attractive to consumers, than higher ones, if and if the quality of service meets their expectations. In this sense, due to the threat of substitution, the power and the advantage of the airlines in the market may be weakened (2007). In addition, such advantage of Oasis Airlines in the market of Hong Kong and other countries can be analyzed using Porter’s Threat of New Entry. It has been reported that if the company has little protection for its key technologies, then new competitors can quickly enter its market and weaken its competitive position (2007). In this regard, to be able to preserve the competitive advantage of Oasis Hong Kong Airlines, it must be able to strengthen its barriers to entry and preserve its position in the market.




Has corporate social responsibility become the modern gold rush?

Has corporate social responsibility become the modern gold rush?

the Guardian

Patagonia, Dove and Chipotle are backing social and environmental issues in a bid to get ahead of competitors, but is it working?


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics




            The Virgin Atlantic Airways is a UK-based private international airline that started operation in 1982.  Flying up to 20 destinations in North America, Asia and Africa, it is 51% owned by Virgin Group and 49% owned by Singapore Airlines ().  It competes with other local and international airlines including British Airways, the biggest and leading in UK.  In 2005, it posted .5B in sales and M net income with year-on-year sales and net income growth more or less at 37% and 900% respectively ().  With this information, it suggests firm’s bright future and industry fair share of the market.  However, external and industry environment analysis is a continuous process ( 2003) that every now and then makes prediction and preparedness an integral part of strategic actions of firms to efficiently manage opportunities and threats outside its organization.     


The External Environment: PEST Analysis

            In the local environment, local elections to be held on May this year could made Tony Blair’s concentration in national issues such as health and education shift into local issues such as crime, anti-social behavior and environment ().  As a result, transport industries including aviation should consider this early the type of their fuels and fix emission loopholes.  They must research oil suppliers that sell environment-conscious fuels and test its efficiency and compatibility with aircraft engines including preparation to possible fluctuations in present fuel costs. 


            In fuel-related issue, the European Union resorted legal action against member countries like France, Germany and Italy of protecting their utility firms against foreign competition ().  As a result, prices of fuels failed to obtain efficiencies of competitive industry making oil prices for the transport sector more costly.  Local aviation firms should consider this EU action significant disincentive to their cost-effective strategies because UK, unlike the mentioned countries, fosters foreign imports making oil prices for the industry cheaper.  If these countries are able to liberalize the energy sector, possible cost strategy is necessary to retain the prior upper hand.


            Research suggests that rural, metropolitan and London population either employed, unemployed or economically inactive dispose most of their weekly budget to transportation along with food and recreation ().  Since socio-cultural segment affects economic and political/ legal segments ( 2003), aviation industry could less be influenced by the latter outcomes despite of their ambiguity (will Blair retain position or will EU countries accept the directive) because consumers are willing to pay with little regard to price, instead, value of service.  As a result, it is more strategic to focus on operations than financial structures. 


            Another finding show that 58% of the household population has computers while 49% of which has internet connection with metropolitan areas like London posted the highest incidence ( ).  This information is relevant to most huge firms like Virgin Atlantic Airways who heavily relies in e-business with its interactive website wherein customers can obtain flight schedules and book a flight with their finger tips.  The other half of the population without computers can be addressed by the firm through other forms of media.  In addition, it can also verify through additional scanning the prevalence of internet café in rural areas where household ownership is relatively low.


The Industry Environment: Five Forces

            New entrants in the industry basically face two difficulties: barriers to entry and retaliation from present firms ( 2003)  In the aviation industry, particularly the service passenger-based ones like Virgin Atlantic Airways, in modern economies are privately-operated that calls for substantial financial requirements at the fore.  Since travel services are derived demand (), new entrants should be able to cut a share in the pie in the presently saturated market.  This endeavor could result to another substantial resource to be deployed.  However, with such new entrant engagement, it does not assure of intended results because competitors like Virgin already created strategic links to other country-routes including its alliance with Asian giant Singapore Airlines that makes it easy to create counter-strategy.


            Boeing, the largest manufacturer of jetliners and supplier of Virgin’s aircrafts, had recently signed long-term agreement with largest aerospace parts distributor            for an Integrated Materials Management ().  As a result, Boeing could reduce its inventory and minimize warehousing costs because spare parts will be provided only when needed.  A cost reduction strategy from a supplier can assure customers like Virgin of price management scheme, if not, its another supplier, Airbus (the once number one airline manufacturer) could be resorted.


Competitors in the industry have the same capability in terms interactivity of their web pages like Virgin.  This is supported almost fifty percent prevalence of internet connection among UK market, not to mention other countries.  As a result, the power of buyers to gain access to prices and services of firms increase making them knowledgeable of distinction of one from the other.  Companies on their part are obliged to be more competitive especially in maintaining and updating their web sites. 


The country’s sea transport industry had developed super ferries while the 2003 recorded 17.4% increase of UK passengers who took cruise holidays that reached nearly one million in that year ().  This development would make sense to airline industry tourism and leisure market especially foreigners that like to see the national endowments.  With demand for airline transport rise at faster rate than supply for it, the airline industry is required to effectively allocate its resources in a manner that exploit this supply shortage.


Other airline competitors in the likes of AMR Corp., British Airways and Lufthansa are operating in at least 150 destinations compared to Virgin’s 20 ().  As a result, rivalry among these firms against Virgin is relatively insignificant although strategic actions of Virgin that directly and significantly threat their market could spark retaliation in the detriment of relatively small firm.  The firm should focus in its target market and avoid competing with these large firms. 



            By studying this external and industry analysis on environmental facts, it could be said that Virgin Atlantic Airways is situated in standard cycle markets wherein its competitive advantage is moderately shielded from imitation.  In general, airline industry belongs to slow cycle markets, however, due to relatively smaller capital and operations of some firms like Virgin, companies within this industry are unable to assure their long-term above average returns because they are relatively vulnerable to general environment (low lobbying power) and relatively unsecured to industry forces (potential entrants or larger competitor predation).  As a result, Virgin should focus in a specific market niche or specific routes to obtain value other than price and survive the competition.      



The Marketing Strategy and Marketing Competitors of Dove

by (Miki Liu) @ Miki Liu

For Dove, because they are concentrating on the products which related to the woman, there is no doubt that the beauty and confidence are concerned by the Dove. Their mission is that their products could help the next generation of women develop a positive relationship with the way they look, help them raise their self-esteem and realise their full potential (Dove, 2016).

For Dove, some unbranded shampoo and conditioners which come from other countries cannot be ignored. For example, the Oil Hair Care Conditioners which is made by China. The price is 3 dollars which is much lower than Dove (ebay, 2016). During this years, Olay would be the powerful competitor for Dove. The main competing product is the Olay Soap Bar, the price is all similar, the same demand also can be performed by Olay. Regarding to the brand competition, Nivea is the direct competitor brands which could offer the same product including shampoo, cleansing Bar, body lotion and shower cream.

The competitive position of Dove will be analyzed by Porter’s five forces. The first power is from buyer, it depends on how easy can consumers buy the products and how much can they buy the products. In this situation, Dove can be found in the any supermarket and the price is acceptable easier by consumers. The next power is from rival; some competitors is offering undifferentiated products which would reduce market attractiveness (CGMA, 2016). However, because some technologies which cannot be plagiarized by other competitors, it could help Dove continues to be noticeable.

As a universal brand, Dove has many innovative aspects. In this situation, Dove Soap is a natural moisturizer, for the oily skin, the product is manufactured not only to prevents blemishes but also helps in moisturizing the skin to avoid the roughness. Next, Dove Soap is anti-allergic, if the costumers who have an extremely sensitive skin use this soap, it will prevent an oily skin from reacting and breaking out (Shruti, 2016). In addition, Dove is belonging to the Unliever which is a well-known brand worldwide, because of it, the reputation and customer loyalty has been increasing rapidly.

Dove is promoting product development strategy. Dove prefer introduce the new generation of products to consumers. For instance, there are 3 types of soap bar, Beauty Cream Bar which is the basic one and Pure & Sensitive Beauty Cream Bar which is for the sensitive skin (Dove, 2016).


CGMA. (2016). Porter’s Five Forces of Competitive Position Analysis. Retrieved from CGMA:
Dove. (2016). Our vision. Retrieved from Dove:
Dove. (2016). ZEEP. Retrieved from Dove:
ebay. (2016). Shampoos & Conditioners. Retrieved from ebay:

Shruti. (2016, August 3). Top 5 Benefits Of Dove Soap For Oily Skin. Retrieved from STYLECRAZE:

Consumer buying behaviors

by (Miki Liu) @ Miki Liu

There is no doubt that the consumers’ decision making will be influenced by some external and internal elements. For example, the social environment could affect the decision making process, it divided into 4 parts, roles and family, reference groups, social classes, culture and sub-cultures.

For Dove, the reference groups have the less influences, because Dove is producing the products for daily life and that kinds of product are familiar to consumers. In most instances, people already formed a habit, so the impact from reference groups is decreasing. In addition, some products which are expensive such as the vehicle and jewelry, the decision making will be affected by reference groups. With regard to social classes, it has greatly affected the decision making. Because some higher-lower level people would like to use some higher level skin care products. The purchases amount of the upper layer people will reduce dramatically.

In my opinion, Dove has relation to most stages of the family life cycle, especially for the women. First of all, in the singlestage, there is less connection, because people have not contacted Dove. But in the empty nest, the consumers have started to have contact with variety of skin care products. In the full nestand the full nest , Dove shampoo, clear bar and hair condition has begun to be purchased frequently. In the empty nest , using Dove shampoo and clear bar already become to the habit, then this habit will be continued into single stage.

The evaluation of alternatives of consumer buying behavior will be most likely for Dove. In the stage 1 of the consumer buying decision process, consumers would like to buy some skin care products which is not dry. Then because of the advertising, Dove will solve the problem of dry skin, this recognition of Dove products already came into consumer’s mind deeply. Next, people would compare other brands with Dove, after comprehending the benefit of Dove, they would go to the next stage which is purchasing. Finally, consumers will evaluate whether Dove resolves the problem of dry skin.


Attribute of Dove Clear Bar

Brand Evaluation
Importance X Br Eval
Cleaning Strength
Protect Skin
The degree of comfortable after using
Weighted sum:

1=unimportant…5=very important

1=unsatisfactory…5= very satisfactory



Guest. (2015, July 30). SocialTimes. Retrieved from 10 Brands Doing an Amazing Job on Social Media:


What We Can Learn From Dove's Marketing Strategies | Mechtronics

What We Can Learn From Dove's Marketing Strategies | Mechtronics


Dove by Unilever has evolved to be one of the most trusted beauty product makers in the industry, appealing to women across the world.


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics



Decision making process is considered as the essential tool for keeping business organizations in its proper pacing in maintaining market success and increase in growth and stability as business managers must decide on better decision for the good of the company and that as a manager he need to use a set of framework in realizing his decisions and not to follow his gut feeling in times of critical situations that needs collaborative consideration from the management team and that he then needs to justify his interest in managerial decision making and focused on its distinct models and framework as it is the integral part of every business. Managers need to decide according to standards and principles being followed by the management and to respect its organization governance in which gut feeling approach is of no use because when managers make their decisions they should not be subjective in ways but objective and should adhere to the positive manner of the constructive approach of realizing the details of making decisions work effectively.







The analysis of         provided a basic framework for investigating the general process of individual decision making that it comprises a few discrete stages: (1) what is the problem? (2) What are the alternatives? (3) Which alternative is best? as with regards to managerial decision making, the text emphasizes that such stages play out in a set of steps ranging from initial detection of a problem to implementation and monitoring of a chosen solution. The individual’s decision-making style is his natural, habitual (albeit learned) approach to effecting a choice and then acting on that choice.  In particular, a substantial amount of research has been done to investigate the impact of personal values on outcomes of the decision-making process. For example, values have been related to differences in behaviors ranging from preference ratings for automobile attributes, to mass media usage, to occupational choice.







Henceforth,           described managers as having to mediate decisions in response to a wide variety of pressures, as well as often having to put together a coalition of inside and outside groups to survive using instruments that characterizes managers as “feelers” rather than “thinkers,” and as “intuitive” rather than “sensing”: These managers are more interested in people and feelings than in analysis and is always waiting to know more before deciding, holding off decisions and judgments. They are open and flexible, able to see and appreciate all sides of issues, welcoming new perspectives and information about issues. Although private managers might demonstrate value preferences different from those of different decision-making styles, our research proposition is that the relationships between their values and decision-making styles should obtain. There was a decision-making framework for business managers who want to build their brands in a corporate advertising environment. The framework raises several questions that brand managers need to address and be able to show how questions pertaining to consumer characteristics and brand tactics form the basis of a useful conceptual model. There needs to investigate whether brand managers consider consumers’ corporate ad knowledge and how they use it in their brand planning for learning about actual brand decision-making processes in a corporate advertising environment.




It was believe that the decision making framework will facilitate conceptually based research on the management of brands in the modern business environment and limiting the gut feeling approach to be done to develop a meaningful theory of organization knowledge that can guide the managers. Decision-making processes related to choice of market, timing and mode of entry are therefore important to understand from both a research and managerial perspective ( 1999).  Moreover, (1989) challenged several of the accepted principles of decision making, her research demonstrated that more successful companies in a better environment could analyze more relevant data, consider multiple alternatives simultaneously, and make faster decisions than their less successful competitors practicing slower decision-making processes in the same market. For example, the “comprehensive” perspective posited that, due to human cognitive limitations (, 1955) faster decisions could be made by limiting alternatives considered and by constraining analysis ( 1984;  1973;  1976). It was also generally accepted that centralized decision-making would speed the decision making process because conflict and consensus are more time-consuming than an autocratic process.




 (1989) stated that when decision makers immerse in real-time information, they acquire “a deep personal knowledge of the enterprise that allows them to access and interpret information rapidly when major decisions arise. The executives making fast decisions also use tactics to accelerate analysis of information and alternatives during the decision process (p. 570).       theory to faster decision making argues that two of the antecedent’s necessary for strategic decision speed are a two-tier advice process and consensus with qualification. Both of these antecedents call for a leadership type that inculcates others’ ideas and thoughts in the decision-making process. Therefore, decision-making theory requires a top management leadership that values participation of intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration, would allow a faster decision making process through       ‘s (1989) theory of decision making. Moreover, the business world has been able to adapt some of the thinking from the field management practice. Many concepts can be applied to how people interact and how to operate the business as one of the concept that plays a major role in decision is gut feel or intuition.






People generally agree that intuition refers to the brain’s process of interpreting and reaching conclusions about phenomena without resorting to conscious thought. Thus, the Boston Consulting Groups wrote “intuition is the subconscious integration of all experiences, conditioning, and knowledge of a lifetime including the cultural and emotional biases of that lifetime.” The debate raging in the business sector in the clinical world is whether you should trust your intuition in making decisions or ignore it because of its lack of critical analysis.        takes the view that intuition is extremely important and essential in decision making. He uses multiple examples of firefighters, intensive care nurses, marines and leaders who use their intuition to come to decisions in a rapid rammer because of their intuition skills. People have “gut feelings” when faced with making choices at work. For example, you may have evaluated a job candidate when your gut told you “something” seemed wrong because there is no way to quantify, these hunches you dismissed them as untrustworthy, only to discover later that your gut feeling was right all along.        demystifies the role intuition plays in the workplace and gives us permission to trust our instincts. He shows that gut feel, far from being an innate “sixth sense,” is an essential and learnable skill that anyone can use to improve job performance.




t is as important a tool in making a decision as interpreting numbers or analyzing data. Gut feeling or Intuition is an essential, powerful and practical tool.        discovered that the more experience people have in any particular field, the more they rely on gut feelings because it is a natural and direct outgrowth of experience. He defines gut feel/intuition as “the way people translate their experience into action.” In other words, people’s experience lets them recognize what is going on and make decisions. Most real-life decisions are simply not amenable to classic, analytical decision making as the experienced managers often make the mistake of assuming that their subordinates see the same patterns that are known to them. Then,        believes that a lot of us want to accept the transformative power of intuition as if it were magical. According to him, people want to believe in intuition but it unfortunately blinds us to the less romantic realities of business decision making. For every great example of a great “gut decision’’, there is an equal and opposite example of a terrible one.       refers to research studies of cognition that show a person’s thinking is subject to all sorts of biases and flaws, most of which operate at a subconscious level – the level of intuition.





The essence of business environment is to apply decision making structure in its process even if gut feeling in some ways can be good as indeed, the human drive to find decision patterns that will deal into the process of developing and shaping an appropriate organization structure amicably effective for modern business environment as the new decision support systems don’t eliminate human gut feel or intuition, as         asserts that people harness its power while remedying its most pernicious flaws. In fact, he believes computers will impose a left-brain discipline on right-brain hunches in a way that is well beyond the computational capacity of the human mind. He feels that gut feelings continues to play a key role, allowing people to make informed decisions without short-circuiting its power within the combination in a form of creative potential as it offers the true fulfillment of the promise of human intuition.









Therefore, I agree that managers should use set of framework that will give basis and support in terms of deciding on something integrating to the decision making process on the other hand, the gut feeling approach could be used by the modern business environment depending upon which the need may arise and it is a sort of case to case situation as the purpose of making better decisions is to provide business success in the global market by means of depicting the general nature of relative components along with its aspects within exclusive domains and believe that in order for an organization to be more successful there should be a fit within its decision-making processes and organization context along its top management team. Furthermore, business managers can use gut feeling approach in some ways of realizing the decision framework respectively. Finally, in referring to decision-making, certain scale can be developed to determine if the decision making framework process at the managerial level of needed information and if the decision-making process is essential for the structure of the business as it provides evidence and making such study in research an important basis for future research p.







Mission Minded Wins National Marketing Awards

by Rod Lemaire @ Mission Minded

Mission Minded won Gold and Silver Brilliance Awards this week for our work on Marin Academy’s Website and Drew School’s Admissions Video in a national competition hosted by InspirED School Marketers. We feel so lucky to have had the chance to lead the rebranding efforts for these two extraordinary schools. Each project was a joy […]

The post Mission Minded Wins National Marketing Awards appeared first on Mission Minded.

Dove SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

Dove SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share.

SWOT analysis of Dove is covered on this page along with its segmentation, targeting & positioning (STP). Analysis of Dove also covers its USP, tagline / slogan and competitors.

Dove: The Most Impressive Brand Builder | Aaker on Brands

Dove: The Most Impressive Brand Builder | Aaker on Brands

Prophet Thinking

Dove has grown tremendously in an intensively competitive arena with established competitors largely through their brand building efforts. Learn more.

Dove- Winning with its Simplicity

Dove- Winning with its Simplicity

Lisa's scribbles....

In the past few decades, the cosmetic industry has had many facelifts. From baby soft skin to smooth and silky hair, consumer product giants like Avon, Colgate-Palmolive, Johnson & Johnson, L’O…

Business Marketing

by (Miki Liu) @ Miki Liu

Dove is a general consumer product, but it still has some business markets. For example, Dove has the cooperation relationship with some hotels. For convenience, some hotels will offer the samples of shampoo and body lotion in the bathroom for their consumers. Then Dove will reach an agreement with hotels to offer the shampoo and body lotion. For Dove, if consumers feel satisfaction after using the sample from hotel, they would like to buy more products of Dove after they come back to home.
Dove has been adapted to the business markets. According to the research, except the cooperation with hotels, Unilever also has partnership with LinkedIn. LinkedIn is a key channel for attracting and engaging external talent. LinkedIn is a new content-sharing platform which allows consumers to show the world by sharing relevant content across their own social networks (Unilever, 2015).

The straight rebuy purchase is most likely applicable to Dove. The samples which are offered to the hotels are smaller size but it has the same high quality with the normal shampoo which is sold in the supermarkets. It means that the hotels would like to order the same products repeatedly after they feel familiar and satisfied with Dove. In addition, to keep this relationship, except ensuring the quality of products and service, Dove is improving their service and trying to deliver on time.

In a selected business market, firstly, the hotel managers will recognize that consumers need to take shower, so they will consider the supplier of body care. Then some internal information already presents in the people’s memory including the hotel managers, but the managers still need to search some external information which received from or obtained by consumers. Next, the managers will evaluate which brand could attract consumers and evaluate the different alternatives that offer to the hotels. Finally, the managers will make the purchase decision. If the feedback from consumers is better than expected, managers would have post-purchase behavior and order the products repeatedly.

Research has shown that derived demand is a term used in economic analysis. It describes the demand placed on one good or service as a result of changes in the price for some other related good or service (INVESTOPEDIA, 2016). And the demand does not come from consumers. For example, the demand of tire is derived by the demand of vehicle transportation.

With regard to Dove, if more hotels would like to order shampoo and body lotion from Dove, the quantity of industries and staffs will increase dramatically. It also need to be emphasized that if the demand of shampoo and body lotion decreases slightly, the raw material will also decrease, then the amount of staffs who are gathering raw materials will decline.


Guest. (2015, July 30). SocialTimes. Retrieved from 10 Brands Doing an Amazing Job on Social Media:
INVESTOPEDIA. (2016). Derived Demand. Retrieved from INVESTOPEDIA:

Unilever. (2015). the Unilever Annual Report and Accounts 2015. Retrieved from Unilever:

Strategic Marketing Management: The Case for UBS

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

The Case for UBS Implementing a New Marketing Strategy

The sixth largest bank in the world-famous in investment banking, wealth and asset management is drastically degenerating tolow keys. Consequently, the imperative campaign to restructure branding management strategy for UBS is critical to its long term survival and stability in the face of stringent global competition.  Sifting through the troubling challenges from the remnant effects the recent, magnified fiasco have caused with US tax authorities in the tax evasion case against US investors on respective individual investments, by which the bank allegedly kept its tax haven niche on their behalf, links to cause the institution to resilience to regress its usually strong position in the markets. The challenge moreover underlies the flaws  bank secrecy effectuate to abide with integrity on international taxation compliance as a universal norm since Swiss laws do not find the need to disclose assets as  culture influence dictates this norm and is not regarded as a criminal act. However, nevertheless, the United States is a major superpower who wields the clout on a global scale and is a potential to divest the bank’s interests that may risk UBS to maintain global scale trust. Research by Morrison and Foerster (2011) reveal the bank’s involvement in other institutional disputes placing public trust at stake when US based Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) filed a lawsuit against the conglomerate with large scale amounts in restitution and penalties to investors for producing misleading statements and omissions in connection to offerings on risk free principals through principal protected notes. Consequently, the large scale clout by media coverage globally blurred UBS in its overall global strategicposition among the investing public and a class action litigation resulting to rank demotion in global financial services in the face of stiff global competition.

Furthermore to impose the following recommendations that will enable UBS from its current global market position is critical to repave into recovery:

Reposition to Implement a Renewed Strategy:  While UBS hovers in the global realignment phase to recover public trust, it should reemphasize competitive position in the global financial industry not only focus to promote on more intensive and wider scale coverage of strengths on critical clientele based infrastructures in retail investment banking, wealth and asset management through massive campaigns on brand management  While the institution recognizes this expertise as a current deficiency, sheering to competitive positions and advantages over the financial services industry that places them to an edge to entail a strategic position in target markets is necessary. Brand communication is an alternative key to compensate with collective restitution to the investor public on institutional shortcomings from the scandals caused. One way to demonstrate this bears on the advantage in offering competitive and low interest rates as a promotion mechanism to various investment packages while its corporate position is blurred with clarity, impact, and focus on target markets (World Advertising Research, 2004, p.3). Positioning on this strategic stance renders the substantial advantage while target markets are not within reach the adversaries may cause a negative impact. The overall communication strategy should focus to implement a persuasive language in its propaganda as the key element to cohere to the public vital tenets in upbringing conviction on brand communication strategy incorporating the resolution to an extensive domain to cohesive corporate policy compliance to compensate past institutional flaws in its long term marketing portfolio. This strategy should communicate top down to lower hierarchies which partly function as the source niches involving the disputes. This is the most effective way to establish a unique brand identity in certain clientele segments that align the market (World Advertising Research, 2004, p. 3). To resort to an impartial corporate audit policy and compliance plan implementing down to departmental levels should pattern after this strategic marketing to assure policy assurance on all corners of the corporate structure.

Incorporate Stakeholder Participation: The issue with the United States on taxation interests on the claims on investments US investors own violating the bank secrecy law may hold valid but calls the need to incorporate stakeholders or investors to stay informed on the any surfacing issue that impact investments on a periodical basis. This claim attributes to a complex network consequence inevitably wrought from an international marketing strategy approach deriving income dividends from these investments which become the object for national authorities to claim sovereign interest as a right rather an option. Should investors or the company either way initiate triad communication from the onset without jeopardizing not only the bank secrecy law but save an actively implemented marketing strategy with all parties informed to encourage investment flows without  penalty costs the lawsuit incurred and would have prevented to loom the dispute. Whether directly or indirectly such investors intend to conceal taxes through the secrecy law would enable stakeholders or investors to understand the complex consequences which pervasive risks may reach, to strategically devise and implement a plan to position to minimize or evade the risks involved while meeting shareholder expectations (Doole and Lowe, 2008, p.49). This is true especially on the implications the FINRA case may assert in other potential claims that may result to relevant consequences and beyond relating to Treasury Inflation Protection Securities (TIPS) by which profits from volatility action may reach beyond break-even levels even at-the-money levels within TIPS that interpret to be taking at premium, thus no actual profit is realized but claimable by tax to the United States.  UBS management should incorporate TIPS in shareholder discussions on this issue a misinterpretation to resolve since this may uphold otherwise the potential source for future disputes and attract inflation concerns among investors (Lupoli, 2010, p.8).



Dove soap sucks and here's why

Dove soap sucks and here's why


Putting a woman in a room and getting her to criticize her own appearances by tapping into deep personal self esteem issues in front of a man hidden...


by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Buyer Behaviour:  “Culture” is a Money Making Scam


Today’s market is characterized by highly competitive organizations which are all vying for consumer’s loyalty. Firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: company growth. However, external factors are not the only elements which influence growth. There are also internal factors, components working within the organization which shape the direction of the company.


Despite the economic and technological conditions that make it possible now to promote products and services in a larger consumer market, there are other factors that still need to be considered for a business organization reach out easier to their target market. Looking into the characteristics and thought processes of the people still holds as the most significant factor to be looked into by the individuals in the field of sales and marketing. The large scope of market can pose a hindrance to a successful marketing strategy in terms of over generalized definition of the target or niche market.


According to  and  (2001), consumer buying behaviour refers to the buying behaviour of the individuals and households who buy the goods and services for personal consumption. Consumers around the world are different in various factors such as age, income, education level and preferences which may affect the way they avail of goods and services. This behaviour then impacts how products and services are presented to the different consumer markets. There are many components which influence consumer behaviour namely: cultural, social, personal and psychological ( & , 2001). These characteristics cannot be controlled by the companies; therefore, there is a need to assess these elements in order to create an effective marketing plan.


For the business people and the people in the field of advertising and marketing, the product or service being offered could be a good start in planning and executing an effective campaign. Knowing the product and its demands in the market as well as the people who will likely avail and take advantage of the offer will open the possibilities for a campaign that will be most ideal in the market. The manufacturers and the advertisers should be conscious enough to know the characteristics of their product and its demand. There are products and services that are only utilized in a particular location because of the unique lifestyle of the people. The character of the product, if properly studied, could be made and taken as an advantage rather than a drawback in gaining a larger number of target market. The advertisers especially the people in the creative department should answer to such demands in the advertising industry. 


In this age of globalization and information technology, deciding which brand to choose can be a problem. Competition is evident and intense, and the marketing and management divisions of corporations are surely giving everything they can to establish their brands. A fine and well-advertised brand might have a competitive edge from a lesser exposed brand name. But then, a lesser known brand can also have an edge over price, given that they cost less than known brands. However, in the end, the decision still lies within the consumers.


In today’s business world, the value and importance of customers is not something that should be set aside by companies. Marketing plans and strategies would be incomplete without paying much consideration to the customers. Customers will always be a part of the agenda in any marketing plan of any company. Because of the implications for profitability and growth, customer retention is potentially one of the most powerful weapons that companies can employ in their fight to gain a strategic advantage and survive in today’s ever increasing competitive environment (, 1999).


Consumers can either be subjective or objective, testing the persuasiveness of brand names. Retail stores selling the products also play an important role in swaying the decisions of consumers. The whole package or visual appeal of the retail outlet can determine sales, or the service of the sales ladies or the clerks. Furthermore, consumers may choose particular products/brands not only because these products provide the functional or performance benefits expected, but also because products can be used to express consumers’ personality, social status or affiliation (symbolic purposes) or to fulfill their internal psychological needs, such as the need for change or newness (emotional purposes) (, 2002). These are just some of the factors that affect consumer behaviour. They have been the subject of consumer research for years, for instance, linking them with customer service and customer satisfaction, or the efficacy and persuasiveness of advertisement, etc.


According to the : “Consumers purchase products and services for the benefits derived from their use. While the study of economics focuses on outcomes, consumer behaviour emphasizes the process. Rather than assuming perfect conditions, researchers of consumer behaviour explicitly recognize the impact of situational elements on behaviour and the variance among individuals faced with the same conditions” which means that consumers buy products for the benefits they reap out of it, the study of consumer behaviour investigates the steps, or the processes involved regarding the decisions made by the consumer. Most consumers regard the purchase of real estate to be ‘high involvement goods’ that require complex decision-making,’ in purchasing real estate, such as houses, apartments or units,  consumers usually go through three key processes before they consider buying, and these are: information search, evaluation of alternatives and decision rules.


,  and , emphasized that “consumer behaviour is best understood as problem-solving behaviour.” Consumer behaviour is related to certain motivational behaviors that are aimed towards attaining a certain goal at the end. Goals, according to developmental psychologists are “cognitive representations of desired-end status which serve as standards in the control of behaviour. Research on sensation and perception, attention, categorization, inference making, information search, memory, attitude and behaviour, attitude formation and formation, conditioning and satisfaction have been undertaken to understand consumer behaviour. In the area of sensation and perception and attention, most works are confined primarily to visual or auditory processes. Among the studies on this area include those of  and  (1994) who examined attention to packages on store shelves, as measured by eye fixations.


Based on the integrated model, culture influences behaviour through its manifestations: values, heroes, rituals, and symbols ( and , 2001). The combination of both etic and emic perspective on the manifestations can basically reveal culture’s strong relation with customer behaviour. The etic philosophy is based on the definition of culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another’’ (, 1997). On the other hand, the emic philosophy stresses upon understanding issues from the perspective of the subjects being studied ( and , 2001). As cited from  (1988), this philosophy determines the coordinates of social action and productive activity, specifying the behaviours and objects that issue from both.


Values are basically the basis of one’s attitude or restriction in attitude. Some examples of values include freedom, pleasure, inner harmony, and happiness. Heroes, on the other hand, refer to icons in the society that may have an impact on people of different levels. Examples of heroes are sports figure or pop culture figures.  and  (2001) stated that heroes may influence consumer behaviour through their association with certain products and brands. The same goes with rituals, or symbolic activities commonly performed over and over, such as bathing, tooth brushing, attending to mass, to school, etc. Their involvement on the consumption of consumer products makes them important for consumer behaviour. Finally, symbols are equally important because different cultures have different symbols that they favor i.e. language, logos, signs, etc ( and , 2001).


Meanwhile, of all the components of a marketing plan, the most essential of all these elements, but most often the most overlooked is the definition of the target market. And yet, no one can proceed to a communication plan without answering the question of who do the company have to convince to buy the product or service. Market segmentation is the identification of sub-groups within the total market that the company wants to target. This fully recognizes that buyers of any product or service category need, desire, want and expect different performance characteristics from products or services in the category. It helps the company to position the product properly and prepare marketing strategies to satisfy a more focused range of consumer needs and wants. Furthermore, it is also a factor in effectively using limited marketing resources, identifying unique market niches, improving profitability and helping to retain consumer loyalty.


Companies now face the challenge of making its target consumers respond accordingly to their marketing efforts. Those who understand its consumers’ responses will have a great competitive advantage. The starting point towards this is through the stimulus-response model of buyer behaviour which involves examining the marketing and other stimuli in the consumer’s black box that translates into buyer responses ( & , 2001). Marketing stimuli often consist of the four P’s of marketing: product, price, place and promotion while the other stimuli may include economic, technological, political and cultural factors which exist in the marketing environment. All marketing communications should be directed to a particular target. This aspect suggests that in implementing marketing communication, the company should clearly identify the targeted constituents and stakeholders, or to whom the marketing communication strategy should be directed ( and , 2002). The purpose of this aspect is for the company to create or apply communication instruments that will encourage the market to purchase or patronize the product.


It is always important to know the characteristics and nature of the products and services offered by any advertising campaign because this will guarantee the success of the marketing strategy. But knowing the product alone can be detrimental in any marketing plan if the advertisers and the manufacturers themselves have no idea of the new target market they are trying to penetrate. The fact that there are really products and services that cannot be applied or utilized in a particular country should be a constant thought and reminder to the advertisers and business organization with plans of gaining entrance and share of clients and consumers. The services and products should be correctly classified as to whether they will be sellable in the new market. The lifestyle and daily routines of the people in the new target market should be likewise considered to ensure that the products and services offered will be able to enter the new market in a different locality. Conducting researches and market studies on the purchasing power and the consumer behaviour of these people will benefit the business organization to conceptualize, transmit and channel the correct advertising message to the target. Hopefully, this will eventually attract the interest of the target audience and gain their loyalty to the product or service being made available to them.


             The products or services should always be in synch with the tastes, lifestyle, economic status and purchasing power of the prospect foreign target market.  If the contrary of the case, it may also worthy to consider the time frame in which the marketing strategy and advertising plan will be duly employed and utilized in a foreign locality with different cultural orientation. Time is also the factor to be considered in conceptualizing and contextualizing a product or service innovation as well as its launching or introduction in the market. Even though the concept of the strategy is a standardized advertising campaign, the people who will be responsible in executing the said project should be sensitive enough to investigate on the local environment. The same advertising campaign does not necessarily mean that the strategy, plans and approached that will be utilized is similar. Too much generalization about a locality and the people who will be the target of the campaign may post danger on the success of the project. It is important to get close to the audience by knowing their culture.



















Career Management

by (Muhammad Khaleel) @ Research Topics

Career Management

            Currently, the labor market has becoming more and more competitive. Job seekers should have the intelligence to manage their career in order for them to have their goals achieved. In addition, with today’s actively changing business landscape, businesses are also becoming more complex with the advancing of technology.

In the current economic environment, education is becoming increasingly critical to career success. Therefore, the emphasis on life-long learning and personal development, whether formal through organized seminars, or informal through reading and self-learning, is vital to promote a learning attitude that will continually develop new skills and acquire new knowledge.

            In this more competitive labor market, employees have to have also the competitive edge to cope with the dynamic change in the market. Businesses today seek for more flexible staff and with more technical knowledge. Employees have no choice but to constantly increase their technical knowledge to be more flexible.

In connection with is, employees must also be able to apply these technical knowledge and skills to handle an increasingly diverse, non-routine set of situation and events to be more effective in the workplace and to satisfy customer and organizational needs.

According to  (2000), employees must continually commit themselves to learning to enhance their knowledge and to increase their skills. Moreover, he enumerated some real challenges for today’s employees. These include the following:

1.                          Responding and coping with new and rapidly changing business environment and organizational structures.

2.                          Gathering and digesting more timely and relevant information.

3.                          Handling technology and e-commerce.

4.                          Quality – getting it right first time.


According to  (2000), job skills will continue to increase exponentially and not in a linear pattern, leaving those individuals who fail to adequately prepare and develop themselves continually out-of-work or with no opportunities for growth and professional development.

With these challenges, career management becomes more critical in today’s world for everyone at all levels in the organization. In the past it was important however in today’s dynamic market, career management become more an essential. Career management is drastically different today than in the last decade.

Career management is changing due to the change in the nature of career. The nature of careers is being affected radically by:

1.      Economic changes displacing large numbers of employees from old to new forms of employment, and frequently leading to reduced employment status for those whose skills are obsolete and who are unable to adapt to new businesses

2.      New technology resulting in the automation of formerly labor intensive processes, improved communication and information, and the growth of new kinds of organizations, occupations and jobs

3.      Changes in business culture ranging from privatization, with resultant pressures for new forms of regulation, to changes in organizational practices (such as refocusing around core business activities) have raised awareness of corporate culture as a source of strength, resourcefulness and flexibility

In addition, according to  (1997), much of these changes can be attributed to the new contract between employer and employee. Part of this paradigm shift affects careers. It is no longer the company’s responsibility to manage our careers. This responsibility falls to each of you.

Career management has been complicated by the current trends in restructuring, downsizing, rightsizing and outsourcing. Traditional upward mobility is no longer available and gone is the fast track. Today’s career progression is a complex maze of crisscrosses and lateral moves.

The traditional, vertical career path was straightforward with little guess work. Today’s career paths are not so straightforward. Some are known as the network career path (with horizontal and vertical movement), the lateral skill path (with horizontal movement), and the dual career path (with movement for experts on the technical side of the business not desiring managerial positions).

With the loss of the traditional, upward career path, organizations have developed alternatives to help employees. Two such alternatives are formal job revitalization and broad banding. Companies are attempting to “spice up” employees’ jobs where promotions are not possible with job revitalization. Broad banding gives organizations an opportunity to increase an employee’s compensation without an upward move. Both of these methods, however, require that the employee contribute more to the organization and acquire new skills. The key is to recognize the need for transferable skills as well as the imperative to continually be adding value to your position and to your organization.

According to  (1997), career management does not just happen. Careers must be carefully managed. Determining where you are going and outlining a strategy whereby you can get there are some of the certain steps to manage careers.

Career management is the process by which career goals are met. This requires, then, that you set career goals and objectives. You need to know where you are going to know how to set your course.

            This paper focuses its discussion on the career management of top executives. This paper attempts to analyze the labor market of top executives and identifying their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats they face in pursue of their careers. Included also is an updated personal development plan or CV.


Career Management Portfolio

Labor Market Analysis

            Top executives are expected to have keen competition because of the prestige and high pay attract a large number of qualified applicants. Top executives are among the highest paid workers; however, part of their job is working long hours, considerable travel, and intense pressure to succeed.

The nature of their work is to strive to meet their organizations goals and objectives. Top executives devise strategies and formulate policies to ensure that these objectives are met. Long hours including evenings and weekends are standard for most top executives although their schedules are flexible. Substantial travel between international, national, regional, and local offices to monitor operations and meet with customers, staff, and other executives often is required of managers and executives.

Many managers and executives also attend meetings and conferences sponsored by various associations. The conferences provide an opportunity to meet with prospective donors, customers, contractors, or government officials and allow managers and executives to keep abreast of technological and managerial innovations. Top executives are under intense pressure to succeed; depending on the organization, this may mean earning higher profits, providing better service, or attaining fundraising and charitable goals. Executives in charge of poorly performing organizations or departments usually find their jobs in jeopardy.

Top executives must have highly developed personal skills. An analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important, as is the ability to consider and evaluate the relationships between numerous factors. Top executives also must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively. Other qualities critical for managerial success include leadership, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexibility, sound business judgment, and determination. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company training programs that impart a broader knowledge of company policy and operations.

It is expected that the position of the top executives are of the most competition due to its prestige and high salary. It is expected that many applicants who are qualified are attracted with the offer especially on the large companies. Because this is a large occupation, numerous openings will occur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. However, many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other executive positions, a pattern that tends to limit the number of job openings for new entrants.

According to a survey by independent Remuneration Solutions and Manifest, although rises in total pay for top executives slowed sharply, it is still rising faster than average earnings and three times the rate of inflation (2006).

Total pay, including base salaries, bonuses and the expected value of long-term incentive plans, rose 9 per cent to a median of £2.1m for chief executives of large companies last year. This compares with compound growth of 19 per cent a year for eight years or a total rise of 230 per cent since 1998. Over the same period, average earnings rose 38 per cent and the FTSE100 grew 4 per cent ( 2006).

Use of bonuses, options and particularly long-term incentive plans have risen faster than base salaries. Performance-based awards now make up more than three-quarters of total remuneration for the average FTSE 100 CEO. Total pay at smaller companies rose just 6 per cent, according to a survey of 235 companies who have reported since January 1 ( 2006).

            In connection, according to Rick Slayton, there is a rising demand for top executives. He notes that “The supply and demand dynamics have given high performing executives more career options than they’ve had in years.”

There have been challenges in which top executives faces with the changes in the current economic environment. Technological advances, changes in social behavior, demographic shifts and economic conditions are driving fundamental changes in the structure of the labor market and the playing field on which we compete for labor. Our competitiveness with other employers is affected by general labor market forces.


However, according to  (2006), the supply and demand dynamics have given high performing executives more career options. Slayton points out that there is a rising demand for top executives. Slayton also points out recent studies documenting an increase in executive job transition and moves by employers to change their pay practices to match a more competitive job market.  (2006) commented that candidates as a general rule have more power today.

For much of the past five years, employers were holding the cards in the executive employment market, because new opportunities were scarce. But today, it’s clear that the pendulum of the executive employment market has moved way over to the candidate or seller side. The bargaining advantage has shifted substantially beyond equilibrium in favor of the top candidates.

Slayton suggested that recruiting season will keep corporate recruiters and executive search firms busy trying to market compelling opportunities to top management talent. According to him corporate employers will continue to  place a premium on the right mix of professional experience, advanced education, a track record of consistent performance and successive promotions and executive presence.

Slayton notes an increasing number of executive job candidates are rejecting any company rumored to have a tyrannical CEO, high executive turnover, and/or business practices that might remotely evolve into corporate scandal. He advises employers not to underestimate the importance of their reputation, their brand, and their overall workplace experience and corporate mission, because top caliber management candidates are usually motivated by the challenge of a new job with a growth-oriented employer.

Slayton concluded that “any company that can’t effectively articulate its vision for the future and a compelling employment proposition for world-class management executives will find its ability to recruit diminished or hampered until that changes.” Executives are increasingly opting to transfer to another company if the offer there is better.

Executives have to learn how to manage their career well because they have become as vulnerable to unemployment as lower-ranking individuals. Executives preparing to be interviewed for a new job should make sure that they have certain qualities that will increase their chances of being selected for the position.

Executives today face a different playing field than their predecessors. Before downsizing and restructuring, corporations sought lifetime employees whose commitment to the company was paramount. In turn, executives trusted their employers to develop their careers and protect their tenures. However, as change has become an accepted fact of life and re-engineering is no longer an emergency exercise, top executives are ever more likely to be blasted into the ranks of the unemployed with no safety net. It could happen more than once.

Effective executive should executive presence, stature or social poise, ability to focus, charisma, ability to articulate, and hands-on management capabilities.

Executive presence is hard to define but clients “know it when they see it.” Managers with executive presence speak without a significant regional accent and use strategic silences to appear thoughtful. Grooming such as men with dark, expensive suit, white shirt with French cuffs, Hermes-type tie, manicured fingernails; and women with dark suit or dress, high-quality accessories and jewelry is an important aspect of executive presence.

An executive should be a top communicator. A top communicator must have stature, or social poise. Executives who have it are always onstage but never pretentious. They arrive on time and move crisply, but gracefully. They make the first move to shake hands

The ability to focus is a key element of stature. Top communication executives are always balancing scores of issues, projects, personalities and outcomes. But when they handle one, they give it 100 percent of their attention. They lean forward slightly when they sit – a mark of attentiveness – and they listen carefully.

In addition, executive should be articulate. Communication professionals know that how you say it is often more important than what you say. Articulate executives don’t simply speak clearly. They also respond with a framework for an answer rather than answering questions directly. Articulate executives speak in bullet points and avoid larding their conversations with jargon. The ability to explain a complex issue in simple language is something clients always look for in personal interviews.

An executive’s charisma refers mainly to his or her ability to appear interested, caring and concerned.  Charismatic executives usually like to have people around them and mention others in conversation. They walk the halls of their companies and they chat easily with employees at all levels.

While it’s difficult to assess charisma in a one-on-one interview, recruiters look for subtle cues like giving credit to team members or subordinates. Optimism is also a strong predictor of charisma. When one of our top candidates spent more than half an interview complaining about her current boss and her company’s misguided strategy, she fell to the bottom of the list.

Finally, hands-on executives can do the job that they are managing other people to do. Thriving in a team-oriented environment, they avoid excessive delegation. To be “close to the action,” they meet with customers regularly, use computers extensively, place their own phone calls and sometimes fly coach. Sometimes it’s difficult to find a hands-on executive who has executive presence, but they do exist.

In an age of constant change and declining corporate loyalty, communication professionals can build and strengthen their career clout by taking responsibility for their own job progressions, planning to change jobs every two to four years, and honing their interpersonal skills. If your current employer can’t or won’t help you polish your knowledge base and experience, find one that will. Survival is up to you – not the company.


Personal Development Plan

Strengths and Weaknesses

1. Areas which needs development


2. Strengths

Area of Focus

            The area of focus is mainly on the area which needs development.

  • Encourage innovation

  • Excellent performance in this area results in being able to:

    • Ensure that there is a well communicated innovation strategy that fits with the overall vision of the business

    • Motivate people across the business to identify areas for new products or services.

    • Ensure the resources, particularly the time, and made available for idea generation, development and testing of ideas

    • Evaluate business cases and plans, approve those that appear viable and monitor their progress

    • ensure that the originators and developers of any ideas receive recognition for their achievement


  • Plan change

  • Excellent performance in this area results in being able to:

    • assess the gap between the current and required future state of procedures, systems, structures and roles

    • assess the risks and benefits associated with your strategies and plans and develop contingency arrangements

    • make sure your plans include short-term “wins” as well as longer-term deliverables

    • develop systems for monitoring and assessing progress

    • develop a communication strategy that allows people to give feedback

    • identify training and support needs and plan how to meet these



  • Lead Change

  • Excellent performance in this area results in being able to:

    • Communicate vision for the future, the reason for change and the benefits to everyone

    • Make sure people responsible for planning and implementing change understand their responsibilities

    • Set and prioritize objectives for the change

    • Identify strategies for achieving the vision and communicate them clearly to everyone involved

    • Communicate progress to everyone involve and celebrate achievement

    • Identify and deal with obstacles to change


  • Make a program of projects

  • Excellent performance in this area will result to:

    • Make sure everyone involved is clear about how the program links to strategic targets

    • Take account of all essential needs and translate strategic targets into practical, efficient and effective actions

    • Make sure everyone involved understands the critical aspects of the program and arrangement for dealing with contingencies

    • Monitor and control the program so that it achieves the stated objectives on time and within budget

    • Make recommendations

    • Tell the important issues and the results of putting the program into practice


  • Implement Change

  • Excellent performance of this area will result to:

    • Create a vision of where you area is going

    • Communicate regularly

    • Create a range of leadership styles and apply them to appropriate situation and people

    • Give people support and advice

    • Encourage people to take a lead in their own area of expertise













    Action Plan

                The following plan includes the actions selected and the suggested resources and time frame.




    Time Frame


    Encourage innovation

    Find local courses about encouraging innovation

    Complete within 3 months



    Plan Change

    Find local courses about planning change

    Complete in 3 months


    Lead change

    Find local courses of planning change

    Complete within 6 months


    Manage program of projects

    Find local courses about managing program of projects

    Complete within 9 months


    Implement change

    Find local courses about implementing change

    Complete within 12 months








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